Lymphatics of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Lymphatics of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatics of the Head and Neck Deck (64):
1

What is the lymphatic system? 

A network of drainage vessels 

2

What does the lymphatic system consist of? 

  • Fluid - lymph
  • Drainage vessels
  • Lymphatic tissues

 

3

What are the lymphatic tissues? 

Lymph nodes, a type of lymphoid organ

4

How many lymph nodes are there in the body? 

800

5

How many lymph nodes are there in the neck? 

300

6

Describe the structure of lymph nodes

Connective tissue structures, with a tough, fibrous outer capsule, and reticular connective tissue inside 

7

What do lymph nodes contain? 

Large collections of lymphocytes and macrophages 

8

Where do lymph nodes play a key role? 

In immune defence 

9

What do all substances transported in lymph pass through? 

1 or more lymph nodes 

10

What immune defences do lymph nodes have? 

  • Physical filter
  • Phagocytic filter
  • Full of lymphocytes 

 

11

What happens to the lymphocytes in lymph nodes? 

They activate and proliferate in response to antigens

12

Where are the specific regions in the body where lymph nodes may be palpable? 

  • Neck (cervical)
  • Armpit (axillary)
  • Diaphragm
  • Spleen
  • Abdominal 
  • Pelvic
  • Groin (femoral)

13

What may lymph draining into lymph nodes contain? 

Pathogens 

14

What are the lymphoid organs? 

  • Spleen
  • Thymus
  • Tonsils 

 

15

What happens to the lymph fluid? 

It returns to the blood circulation 

16

Where are lymph vessels found? 

Throughout the body, with a few exceptions

17

What parts of the body do not have a lymphatic circulation?

  • Eyeball
    • Cornea
    • Lens
  • Inner ear
  • Cartilage
  • CNS

 

 

18

Why is there debate regarding the lymphatic circulation of the CNS? 

Recent research has identified small lymphatic vessels lining the dura 

 

 

19

How can lymph nodes be organised? 

Into regional (or superficial) and terminal (or deep) groups 

20

How are regional and terminal lymph nodes seperated? 

By investing layer of deep cervical fascia in the neck

21

What are the regional groups of lymph nodes found in the area of the head and neck? 

  • Occipital 
  • Pre- and post- auricular
  • Submandibular 
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Submental 

 

22

What do regional lymph nodes do? 

Drain specific areas

23

Where do regional lymph nodes in the neck lie? 

Superficially within superficial cervical fascia

24

What is the result of regional lymph nodes lying superficially within superficial cervical fascia? 

They can be readily palpated, especially when enlarged 

25

Where does lymph from superficial lymph nodes drain? 

Into the deep lymph nodes

26

Where does the submandibular node drain? 

  • Upper lip and teeth
  • Lateral lower part of lip
  • Most of face
  • Anterior nasal cavity
  • Tongue (middle)
  • Submandibular and sublingual glands

 

27

Where does the submental node drain? 

  • Lower lip/teeth (central)
  • Anterior chin
  • Tip of tongue
  • Floor of mouth 

 

28

Where does the pre-auricular node drain? 

  • Scalp
  • Anterior part of ear (auricle)
  • Parotid gland
  • Some sources indicate conjunctiva and eyelids

 

29

Where does the post-auricular (mastoid) lymph node drain? 

  • Scalp
  • Posterior part of ear (auricle)
  • Ear canal 

 

30

Where does the occipital lymph node drain?

Occipital area of scalp and neck

31

Where do the superficial cervical lymph nodes drain? 

Skin of neck

32

What are the deep cervical lymph nodes of the head and neck? 

  • Jugulo-digastric (also called tonsillar node)
  • Jugulo-omohyoid
  • Supraclavicular 

 

33

Which deep cervical lymph node is most frequently enlarged? 

Jugulo-digastric

34

Where is the jugulo-digastric node located? 

Just below and behind the angle of the mandible 

35

What does the jugulo-digastric lymph node drain? 

  • Palatine tonsil
  • Oral cavity
  • Posterior 1/3 of tongue
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx

 

36

What is the jugulo-omohyoid lymph node mainly associated with? 

Lymph drainage of; 

  • Tongue 
  • Oral cavity
  • Trachea
  • Oesophagus
  • Thyroid gland

 

37

Where are the supraclavicular lymph nodes found? 

In root of neck on either side 

38

Where do the supraclavicular lymph nodes recieve lymph from? 

The abdomen and thorax

39

What happens to the lymph drained from the abdomen and thorax to the supraclavicular node? 

It drains via the thoracic duct into venous circulation 

40

What is the left supraclavicular node known as? 

Virchow's node

41

What does Virchow's node drain? 

Abdomen and thorax

42

What does the right supraclavicular node drain? 

  • Mid section chest
  • Oesophagus
  • Lungs

 

43

Where do terminal lymph nodes lie within the neck?

Deep to the investing layer of cervical fascia

44

What do the terminal lymph nodes of the head and neck recieve? 

All lymph of the head and neck, either directly or indirectly from regional groups

45

What are the terminal lymph nodes of the head and neck closely related to? 

The carotid sheath, in particular the jugular vein 

46

Describe the path of lymph in the head and neck

Head and neck superficial lymph nodes drain into deep cervica lymph nodes, which surround the IJV before draining via the thoracic duct into the subclavian vein

47

What is the most common cause of swelling in the neck? 

Enlarged cervical lymph nodes 

48

What may an enlarged lymph node signal? 

Disease in the area it drains

49

What diseases can be indicated by an enlarged cervical lymph node? 

  • Infection (most common)
  • Malignancy

 

50

How do enlarged lymph nodes feel in infection? 

  • Tender
  • Mobile

51

How do enlarged lymph nodes feel in malignancy?

  • Hard
  • Matted
  • Non-tender

 

52

What should be done if a lymph node is found to be enlarged? 

  • Comprehensive history 
  • Examine area of tissue it drains
  • If malignancy is supsected, examine other lymph nodes and body systems

 

53

What is lymphodema? 

An abnormal collection of protein-rich fluid causing tissue swelling due to compromised lymphatic system 

54

What can cause lymphodema? 

  • Removal or enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Infections
  • Damage to lymphatic system 
  • Lack of limb movement
  • Congenital

 

55

What kind of infections may cause lymphodema? 

Certain parasites

56

How may the lymphatic system be damaged? 

Cancer treatments

57

Why can lack of limb movement cause lymphodema? 

Muscle contraction assists movement of lymph fluid

58

Give an example of a congenital condition that can cause lymphoedema? 

Milroy's syndrome

59

When is the jugulo-digastric node swollen and tender? 

In tonsillitis

60

When may the jugulo-omohyoid node be enlarged? 

In infection or disease of tongue, oral cavity, trachea, oesophagus, or thyroid gland 

61

When may supraclavicular lymph nodes be enlarged? 

In late stages of malignancies of abdomen and thorax

62

Is an enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node always pathological? 

No 

63

What is Trosier's sign? 

An enlarged, hard, left supraclavicular lymph node

64

What is Trosier's sign considered a sign of? 

A sign of metastatic abdominal malignancy