Pathology of the Ear Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Pathology of the Ear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of the Ear Deck (54):
1

Where are conditions affecting the ear found? 

Both adults and children, and in primary and secondary care

 

2

What are the symptoms of ear disease? 

Varied; 

  • Pain (otalgia)
  • Discharge
  • Hearing loss 
  • Tinnitus
  • Vertigo
  • Facial palsy

 

3

What are the types of hearing loss? 

  • Conductive
  • Sensorineural 

 

4

What are the categories of abnormalities of the pinna? 

  • Congential
  • Inflammatory
  • Traumatic
  • Infective

 

5

Give an example of a traumatic abnormality of the pinna? 

Pinna Haematoma

6

What causes a pinna haemotoma? 

Blunt injury to the pinna

7

Where are pinna haemotomas common? 

In contact sport

8

What is a pinna haematoma? 

Accumulation of blood between cartilage and perichondrium 

9

What results from the accumulation of blood between cartilage and perichondrium in a pinna haemotoma? 

Deprives the cartilage of its blood supply, and pressure necrosis of the tissue can occur

10

 What does a pinna haemotoma require? 

  • Prompt drainage
  • Measures to prevent re-accumulation
  • Re-apposition of two layers if necessary

 

11

What happens if a pinna haemotoma is untreated, or poorly treated? 

Leads to fibrosis and new asymmetrical cartilage development - cauliflower ear

12

Give an example of an infective abnormality of the pinna

Ramsey-Hunt palsy

13

What is Ramsey-Hunt palsy? 

Facial nerve palsy caused by shingles of the facial nerve

14

How common is otitis externa? 

Very common

15

What is otitis externa? 

Infection and inflammation of the ear canal 

16

Do you get discharge with otitis externa? 

May do 

17

How is otitis externa treated? 

  • Antibiotics
  • Steroid drops

 

18

What are the common abnormalities of the tympanic membrane? 

  • Perforation
  • Bulging and redness secondary to otitis media

 

19

What is otitis media with effusion known as? 

Glue ear

20

Is glue ear an infection? 

No 

21

What happens in glue ear? 

There is a build up of fluid and negative pressure in the middle ear

22

What is the result of the fluid in glue ear? 

Means the tympanic membrane doesn't vibrate as well, and so decreases the mobility of TM and ossicles, thus affecting hearing

 

23

What is dysfunctional in glue ear? 

The Eustachian tube

24

What is wrong with the Eustachian tube in glue ear? 

It stays closed all the time

25

What can glue ear predispose to? 

Infection

26

Why does glue ear predispose to infection?

Due to stagnant fluid in the cavirty

27

How is glue ear managed? 

  • Most resolve spontaneously within 2-3 months
  • Some may persist, and require grommets

 

28

What is otitis media? 

An acute middle ear infection

 

29

Who is otitis media common in? 

More common in infants and children in adults

30

What are the symptoms of otitis media? 

  • Otalgia
  • Other non-specific symptoms, e.g. temperature
  • Red, with or without bulging of the TM and loss of the normal landmarks

 

31

What are the complications of otitis media? 

  • Tympanic membrane perforation
  • Facial nerve involvement
  • Mastoiditis
  • Intracranial complications

 

32

What allows otitis media to cause mastoiditis? 

The mastoid air cells communicates with the middle ear cavity, which provides a potential route for middle ear infections to spread to the mastoid bone 

33

What does mastoiditis require for treatment? 

  • IV antibiotics
  • Surgery to drain

34

What are the intracranial complications of otitis media? 

  • Meningitis
  • Sigmoid sinus thrombosis
  • Brain abscess

 

35

What is the middle ear in important anatomical relationship with? 

The facial nerve

36

What is the anatomical relationship between the facial nerve and the middle ear? 

The facial nerve, in particular the chorda tympani branch, runs through the middle ear cavity

37

How is the facial nerve seperated from the middle ear? 

A very thin bony partition 

38

What is the clinical relevance of the anatomical relationship between the middle ear and the facial nerve?

A middle ear infection may cause a lesion of the facial nerve

39

What are the pathologies of the vestibular apparatus? 

  • Vertigo
  • Meniere's disease

 

40

What is vertigo? 

A symptom, rather than a condition itself

Sensation that you, or the environment, is moving or spinning

 

41

Give a common cause of vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

42

What can Meniere's disease affect? 

The vestibular and cochlear components of the inner ear

43

What are the symptoms of Meniere's disease? 

  • Vertigo 
  • Hearing loss
  • Tinnitus
  • Feeling of pressure or fullness in the ear

 

44

How common is cholesteatoma? 

Rare

45

What is the clinical feature of cholesteatoma? 

Painless otorrhea

46

What is cholesteatoma usually secondary to? 

Chronic/recurring ear infections and blockage of ET

47

What does a blockage of the ET cause? 

A sucking, negative pressure, drawing the eardrum inwards, producing a retraction pocket at the top of the middle ear cavity 

48

What results from the formation of a retraction pocket in the top of the middle ear cavity? 

Skin cells get trapped, collect, and continue to grow in this small pocket within the middle ear

49

How does cholesteatoma progress? 

Not malignant, but slowly grows and expands, eroding into structures; 

  • Ossicles
  • Mastoid bone
  • Cochlea

 

50

What is a cholesteatoma initially more likely to grow into? 

Structures in the middle ear

51

What happens to a cholesteatoma over time? 

It may grow into and erode structures in the inner ear or into the bone of the skull, then brain 

52

How does the pharyngotympanic tube differ in infants? 

It is shorter and more horizontal

53

What is the result of the pharyngotympanic being shorter and more horizontal in infants? 

  • Easier passage for infection from the nasopharynx to the middle ear
  • Tube can block more easily 

 

54

What problems does a blockage of the pharyngotympanic tube do? 

Compromises ventilation and drainage of middle ear, and increases risk of middle ear infection