Anatomy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Anatomy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses Deck (61):
1

What are the vital functions of the nose and paranasal sinuses? 

  • Olfaction
  • Provides route for inspired air
  • Filtering and humidifying inpsiured air
  • Allowing drainage of secretions from paranasal sinuses and nasolarimal ducts
  • Resonating chamber for speech

 

 

2

How does the nose remove particles from air? 

By trapping in nasal hair and mucous 

3

Why does the nose and nasal cavity need to warm inspired air? 

So that is doesn't irritate the naso- and oropharynx

4

What is the external nose? 

A predominantly cartiaginous structure

5

What forms the root of the external nose? 

The frontal processes of the maxillae and two nasal bones

6

What is the bridge of the nose? 

The junction between bone and cartilage

7

What is the result of the nose lying in such a prominent position? 

It is often involved in injuries to the face

8

What can injuries to the nose cause? 

  • Septal deviation 
  • Nasal bone fractures
  • Lots of swelling

 

9

What is the result of there being lots of swelling in injuries to the nose? 

May not be able to reset the nost immediately

10

What is it important to consider in a patient with a nasal fracture? 

If you have sustained a nasal fracture, you must have sustained a resonable force to the face, and so must consider other injuries, and take a comprehensive history with examination 

11

What fractures in a nasal fracture? 

The bone, the cartilaginous part is squashy and moveable, so absorbs some of the force

12

What is the space between the shelf of the external nose called? 

The vestibule 

13

What is the vestibule? 

The entrance into the nasal cavity 

14

What is the vestibule lined with? 

Skin, with sebaceous glands and hair cells 

15

Where does the nasal cavity extend? 

From the nostrils anteriorly (anterior nasal aperture) to posterior nasal aperture 

16

What does the nasal cavity have it terms of borders? 

  • Roof
  • Floor
  • Two walls

 

 

17

What is the floor of the nasal cavity made up of? 

  • Hard palate - maxilla and palatine bone
  • Soft palate 

 

18

What is the medial wall of the nasal cavity? 

The nasal septum

19

What is the nasal septum made up of? 

  • Septal cartilage
  • Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
  • Vomer bone

 

20

Draw a diagram of the nasal septum 

 

21

What is the lateral wall of the nasal cavity made up of? 

Maxilla

22

What does the lateral wall of the nasal cavity have? 

Shelf like bony projections called turbinates 

23

What are the names of the turbinates? 

  • Superior
  • Middle
  • Inferior

 

24

What is the lateral wall of the nasal cavity covered by? 

Respiratory mucosa 

25

What do the turbinates create? 

Spaces underneath called meatus

26

What is the function of the turbinates? 

  • Slow airflow, so air can be modified
  • Increases surface area over which air passes

 

 

27

What does the nasal cavity open into? 

The nasopharynx

28

What does the nasopharynx have an opening into? 

The Eustachian tube

29

What is the significance of the Eustachian tube? 

It is in anatomical connection with the middle ear, and so a potential route for the spread of infection

30

What are the paranasal sinuses? 

  • Extensions of the nasal cavity

31

What are the names of the paranasal sinuses? 

  • Maxillary
  • Frontal 
  • Ethmoidal 
  • Sphenoid

 

32

What is the largest of the paranasal sinuses? 

Maxillary

33

What does the maxillary sinus occupy? 

Most of the maxilla bone

34

What does the ethmoidal sinus collectively consist of? 

Anterior, middle, and posterior air cells

35

Describe the paranasal sinuses at birth

Absent or rudimentary 

36

What are the paranasal sinuses lined with? 

Respiratory mucosa; 

  • Ciliated
  • Pseudostratified
  • Columnar
  • Have goblet cells for mucous secretion

 

37

What is the function of the paranasal sinuses? 

  • Help humidify and warm inspired air 
  • Reduce weight of the skull

 

 

38

What is the relationship between the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses? 

They all communicate with the nasal cavity via their respective opennings, and drain into the nasal cavity via small channels called the ostia

39

What can any obstruction to drainage from the paranasal sinuses lead to? 

Accumulation of mucosal secetions and development of infection

40

What is in important anatomical relation with the paranasal sinuses? 

  • Orbit
  • Anterior cranial fossa
  • Roots of upper teeth

 

41

How is the orbit in anatomical relations with the paranasal sinuses? 

Ethmoidal air cells

42

Which sinus is the anterior cranial fossa in important anatomical relation with? 

Frontal 

43

What do the roots of the upper teeth sometimes project into? 

The maxillary sinus

44

What is the rich blood supply to the nasal mucosa key for? 

To allow the warming and humidification of inspired air in nasal cavity

45

Where is the venonus drainage of the nasal cavity into? 

  • Cavernous sinus
  • Facial veinn
  • Pterygoid plexus

 

46

What is the blood supply of the antero-superior portion of the nasal cavity and most of the paranasal sinuses via?

Branches of opthalmic artery 

47

What is the nerve of the antero-superior portion of the nasal cavity and most of the paranasal sinuses via?

Opthalmic nerve

48

What is the blood supply to the postero-inferior portion of the nose via? 

Branches of maxillary artery

49

What is the nerve supply to the postero-inferior portion of the nose via? 

Maxillary nerve

50

What does Waldeyer's tonsillar ring refer to? 

A collection of lymphatic tissue surrounding the superior pharynx

51

What does Waldeyer's tonsillar ring consist of? 

  • Lingual tonsil
  • Palatine tonsils
  • Tubal tonsils
  • Pharyngeal tonsils, or the nasopharynx/adenoid tonsil 

 

52

Where is the lingual tonsil located? 

On the posterior base of the tongue 

53

What does the lingual tonsil form? 

The antero-inferior part of the ring

54

Where are the palatine tonsils located? 

On each side between the palatoglossal and glossopharyngeal arches

55

What are the palatine tonsils? 

The common 'tonsils' that can be seen within the oral cavity

56

What do the palatine tonsils form?

Lateral part of the ring

57

Where are the tubal tonsils located? 

Where the Eustachian tube opens into the nasopharynx

58

What do the tubal tonsils form? 

The lateral part of the ring

59

Where is the pharyngeal tonsil located? 

In the roof of the nasopharynx. behind the uvula 

60

What does the pharyngeal tonsil form? 

The postero-superior part of the ring

61

What is the purpose of Waldeyer's Ring? 

Responds to pathogens that may be ingested or inhaled