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Which atlanto-axial joint is identified as a synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)?

the median atlanto-axial joint


Which atlanto-axial joint is identified as a synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)?

the lateral atlanto-axial joint


What are the names given to the synovial joint spaces of the median atlanto-axial joint?

the anterior bursa and the posterior bursa


What part of the vertical crus ligament may be absent?

the inferior crus ligament


What is the function of the transverse atlantal ligament?

it is the primary stabilizer of the atlanto-axial joint restricting the distance of C2 from the anterior arch of C1


**What is the ADI?

the Atlanto-Dental Interspace, a radiographic distance between the surfaces of the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint


**What is the ADI of children compared with that of adults?

about 4.5 mm in children; a range of 2-3mm or about 2.5mm in adults


What are the attachment sites for the accessory atlanto-axial ligament?

the base of the odontoid process and vertebral body of axis to the tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament on the lateral mass of C1; a superior continuation may attach on the occipital bone just behind that of the alar ligament


What is the homolog of the posterior atlanto-axial ligament?

the ligamentum flavum


What are the degrees of movement facilitated at the atlanto-axial joint?

about 20 degrees flexion - extension, 40 degrees one side axial rotation, and 5 degrees of lateral bending


**The occiput-C1-C2 joint complex accounts for what percent of all cervical axial rotation?

about 60%

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