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Flashcards in L1-L4 Deck (59):
1

What would be the direction of the lumbar curve based on osseous features?

anterior (lordotic)

2

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

the vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height

3

What is the effect of aging on the vertebral body of a lumbar?

decrease in height, increase in circumference

4

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

four

5

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typically lumbar?

six

6

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

none

7

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

two

8

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

four

9

What muscles may attach to the first lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major and psoas minor

10

What muscle(s) may attach from the second down to the fourth lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major

11

Psoas minor will only attach to the vertebral body of which segments?

T12, L1

12

What is the name given to ligaments that attach the vertebral body to articular process?

transforaminal ligaments

13

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

corporotransverse ligaments

14

What corporotranverse ligaments are identified?

superior corporotransverse and inferior corporotransverse ligaments

15

What are the types of Hofmann ligaments?

anterior Hofmann ligaments, posterior Hofmann ligaments, lateral Hofmann ligaments and proximal root sleeve ligaments

16

Hofmann ligaments are identified in which regions along the vertebral column?

cervical - upper thoracic region and lumbar region

17

Cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to segments above

18

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann ligaments?

C6

19

What is the proposed function of the cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments?

resist caudal movement of the dural sac; resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

20

Lumbar Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to lower segmental levels

21

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments?

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

22

What is the proposed function of the proximal root sleeve ligament?

resist displacement of the peripheral nerve system in the intervertebral foramen

23

What is the orientation of the pedicle of a typical lumbar?

posterior

24

The pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

to the upper third or half of the vertebral body

25

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical lumbar?

ligamentum flavum

26

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum attachment?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

27

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

overlap of the lamina, shingling, diminishes; overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

28

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical lumbar vertebra?

triangular

29

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical lumbars?

transverse

30

How does the size of the vertebral foramen differ along the spine?

cervicals have the greatest size, lumbars next, thoracics are smallest

31

What part of the central nervous system is present in the lumbar spine?

the conus medullaris is typically present in the vertebral foramen of L1

32

What part of the peripheral nervous system is present in the lumbar spine?

the cauda equina is typically present in the vertebral foramina of L2-L4

33

Beginning with the L1 transverse process, what is the generic direction and relative length of each succeeding lumbar transverse process?

each transverse process is directed straight lateral and increases in length from L1-L3. L4 then begins to decrease in length

34

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process?

accessory process

35

A styloid occurs at what frequency and as a result of what condition?

7% occurrence as a result of congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process

36

What ligament(s) will attach to the lumbar accessory process?

mammillo-accessory ligament

37

What parts of a vertebra are attached via the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the mammillary process and accessory process of the same segment

38

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

39

What muscle(s) attach to the lumbar accessory process?

longissimus thoracis and intertransversarii

40

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

psoas major, quadratus lumborum, longissimus thoracis, rotator brevis, rotator longus and intertransversarii

41

What ligaments attach to a typical lumbar vertebra?

the lumbocostal, mammillo-accessory and intertransverse ligaments

42

What joint classifications are present at the transverse process of a typical lumbar?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

43

What are the posterior elements of the vertebra?

zygapophysis, lamina and spinous process

44

What are the anterior elements of the vertebra?

vertebral body and pedicle

45

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM); typically concave

46

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar inferior articular facet?

Forward, lateral, downward (FoLD); significant convexity

47

What muscle(s) attach to the mammillary process?

multifidis and intertransversarii

48

What ligament will attach to the lumbar superior articular process and transverse process?

mammillo-accessory ligament

49

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

50

What additional ligaments are said to attach to the lumbar articular processes?

transforaminal ligaments

51

What is the joint classification for the typical lumbar zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

52

How many synovial joints are present on a typical lumbar vertebra?

four

53

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in children?

the zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane

54

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in adults?

the zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4; the zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane for L4/L5 and L5/S1

55

What name is given to zygapophyses between vertebral couples that lie in the same plane?

joint symmetry

56

What names are given to the condition in which the right zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position?

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

57

Define or describe joint tropism.

the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position

58

What is the name(s) of the condition in which the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or 'kissing spines'

59

What muscles will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis, spinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

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