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Flashcards in L1-L4 Deck (59)
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1

What would be the direction of the lumbar curve based on osseous features?

anterior (lordotic)

2

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

the vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height

3

What is the effect of aging on the vertebral body of a lumbar?

decrease in height, increase in circumference

4

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

four

5

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typically lumbar?

six

6

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

none

7

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

two

8

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

four

9

What muscles may attach to the first lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major and psoas minor

10

What muscle(s) may attach from the second down to the fourth lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major

11

Psoas minor will only attach to the vertebral body of which segments?

T12, L1

12

What is the name given to ligaments that attach the vertebral body to articular process?

transforaminal ligaments

13

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

corporotransverse ligaments

14

What corporotranverse ligaments are identified?

superior corporotransverse and inferior corporotransverse ligaments

15

What are the types of Hofmann ligaments?

anterior Hofmann ligaments, posterior Hofmann ligaments, lateral Hofmann ligaments and proximal root sleeve ligaments

16

Hofmann ligaments are identified in which regions along the vertebral column?

cervical - upper thoracic region and lumbar region

17

Cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to segments above

18

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann ligaments?

C6

19

What is the proposed function of the cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments?

resist caudal movement of the dural sac; resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

20

Lumbar Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to lower segmental levels

21

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments?

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

22

What is the proposed function of the proximal root sleeve ligament?

resist displacement of the peripheral nerve system in the intervertebral foramen

23

What is the orientation of the pedicle of a typical lumbar?

posterior

24

The pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

to the upper third or half of the vertebral body

25

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical lumbar?

ligamentum flavum

26

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum attachment?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

27

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

overlap of the lamina, shingling, diminishes; overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

28

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical lumbar vertebra?

triangular

29

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical lumbars?

transverse

30

How does the size of the vertebral foramen differ along the spine?

cervicals have the greatest size, lumbars next, thoracics are smallest

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