Flashcards in Curves of Column: Normal Curvature Deck (24)
Why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?
it is the first curve to appear embryologically
What are the remnants of the primary curve along the vertebral column?
the thoracic or dorsal curve and the pelvic or sacrococcygeal curve
What are the names given to curves that form during development to reverse the direction of regions along the vertebral column?
Anterior curve, secondary curve, compensatory curve
What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?
cervical curve and lumbar curve
At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?
usually between the third and fourth month after birth
What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?
the righting reflex
What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?
between occiput and C1
What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
Which sense is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting, and walking?
What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?
females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve
What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?
lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12
What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?
a right-handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What embryonic event causes the direction of the posterior curve of the vertebral column?
the embryonic disc will undergo flexion in a cranial to caudal direction
What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?
they appear after 6 years old
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?
1. crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development
What segment levels form the cervical curve?
C2 - T1
What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?
T12 - L5
What is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?
the third fetal month
What is the transitional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?
during the last trimester in utero
What is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?
within the first year after birth
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?
typically between C4 and C5
What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?
cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1