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Flashcards in C1 / Atlas Deck (44):
1

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

atlas

2

What features are lacking at C1?

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc

3

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

4

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

5

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

6

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

7

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

8

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

9

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

10

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

11

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

12

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

13

What muscle attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

14

What is the contribution of the posterior arch to the circumference of C1?

about forty percent

15

What part of C1 represents the spinous process?

posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

16

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males: about fifty millimeters; females: about thirty-seven millimeters

17

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

18

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

19

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?

the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

20

Ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament results in which atypical bone classification?

accessory bone

21

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about age 7 years old

22

What may be formed by ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

a partial ponticulus posticus or complete ponticulus posticus

23

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

24

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

25

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

26

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1% - 41%

27

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

female

28

What is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete ponticulus posticus?

the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus is about fifteen percent; the incidence of an incomplete ponticulus posticus may be as high as forty-one percent

29

What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

30

What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina?

it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

31

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

32

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

33

What muscle attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, spenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles

34

What suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

35

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

36

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

the lateral mass and the transverse process of altas

37

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

the retrotransverse foramen

38

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

39

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

lateral bridges

40

What is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

41

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

males: 78 millimeters and females: 72 millimeters

42

What is the difference from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

a little over 30 millimeters for both males and females

43

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

44

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

five

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