Autonomic Innervation of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Autonomic Innervation of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Innervation of the Head and Neck Deck (72):
1

What is the autonomic nervous system part of? 

The peripheral nervous system 

2

Does the autonomic nervous system have any central control?

Yes

3

Where does the central control of the autonomic nervous system come from? 

The hypothalamus of the brain 

4

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

Controls body functions that are not under conscious control

5

What tissues does the autonomic nervous system act on? 

  • Smooth muscle
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Glands

 

6

Give two examples of locations of smooth muscle that the autonomic nervous system acts on

  • Gut 
  • Blood vessels

 

7

Give 3 glands that the autonomic nervous system acts on

  • Lacrimal
  • Mucosal
  • Salivary

 

8

What is the overall function of the autonomic nervous system?

Maintains and fine tunes the internal environment

9

What does the sympathetic nervous system act as in most cases?

An accelerator

10

What does the parasympathetic nervous system act as in most cases?

A brake

11

How are the neurones arranged in the autonomic nervous system?

Has a sequential two neurone arrangement, and an associated ganglion 

12

Where does the pre-ganglionic nerve come from in the autonomic nervous system?

The spinal cord

13

Where do the neurones synapse in the autonomic nervous system?

Synapse in the ganglion 

14

What is a ganglion?

A collection of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

15

Where do the neurones of the sympathetic nervous system arise from? 

The thoracolumbar spinal cord

16

Where do the cell bodies of the pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves sit? 

In the lateral horn of the grey matter of spinal cord segments T1-L2

17

What happens to the pre-ganglionic neurone of the SNS once it has arisen from the spinal cord? 

They enter the sympathetic chain and run up the spinal cord

18

Where do the pre-ganglionic neurones of the SNS synapse? 

Don't synapse at the first ganglion they encounter while running up the sympathetic chain, go up to the top ganglia in the neck

19

What are the top 3 paravertebral ganglia in the neck called? 

Cervical ganglia

20

Where do most sympathetics to the head and neck synapse? 

In the superior cervical ganglia (the top ganglion)

21

What happens to the sympathetic neurones supplying the head and neck from the sympathetic chain?

They hitch hike to where they need to be on blood vessels

22

What to the neurones form around the internal and external carotid arteries? 

A carotid plexus 

23

What happens to the neurones hitch hiking on the internal and external carotid arteries? 

They follow the branches to the target tissues

24

What sympathetic fibres does the internal carotid arteries carry? 

The eye

25

How to the sympathetic fibres get from the internal carotid artery to the eye? 

Via the opthalmic artery

26

What sympthatic fibres does the external carotid artery carry? 

Those going to sweat glands and smooth muscle in blood vessels of the face and neck

27

What is the result of the carotid plexus following the carotid arteries? 

Any disease affecting the carotid artery could also affect the sympathetics of the face

 

28

What is in important anatomical relations to the sympathetic nerves innervating the head and neck? 

The carotid arteries and lung apex

29

What can pathologies involving the carotid arteries and lung apex cause? 

Autonomic dysfunction in the eye and face

30

What may apical lung tumorus cause? 

Development of autonomic disruptio of the face and eye

31

What happens once sympathetic nerve fibres get close to the target tissue? 

Sympathetic nerve fibres have to leave vessels and hitchhike on cranial nerves

32

What cranial nerve does the sympathetics of the tarsal muscle hitch-hike on? 

The oculomotor nerve

33

What cranial nerve do the sympathetics of the dilator pupillae hitch-hike on? 

The trigeminal nerve

34

What do the sympathetic nerves of the head and neck innervate? 

  • Smooth muscle of the blood vessels
  • Smooth muscle of the eyelid (the tarsal muscle)
  • Smooth muscle of the iris (dialtor pupillae)
  • Arrector pili muscles
  • Decreases secretion from salivary and lacrimal glands

 

35

What does the tarsal muscle do? 

Retracts eyelid to keep eyes wide

36

What does the dilator pupillae do? 

Causes the iris to dilate, and so cause the pupils to widen

37

What does Horners syndrome result from? 

Interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the head and neck

38

What are the signs of Horners syndrome? 

  • Miosis
  • Partial ptosis
  • +/- anhydrosis

 

39

What is miosis? 

Dilation of pupil

40

What do the possible diagnoses of Horners syndrome relate to? 

Anatomical relations of sympathetic nerve supply on its route from the spinal cord to head

41

What are the possible causes of Horners syndrome? 

  • Apical lung cancer
  • Carotid artery dissection 

 

42

Where do the parasympathetic nerve fibres innervating the head and neck arise from? 

The cranial outflow, arising from the brainstem 

43

How do the parasympathetic nerves from the cranial outflow leave the brainstem? 

From specific parasympathetic nuclei

44

What are parasympathetic nuclei? 

Collections of cell bodies

45

What are the names of the parasympathetic nuclei? 

  • Edinger Westphal
  • Superior salivary
  • Inferior salivary
  • Dorsal motor

 

46

What cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibres from the brainstem? 

  • Oculomotor
  • Facial
  • Glossopharyngeal 
  • Vagus

 

47

Where does the oculomotor nerve arise from? 

The brainstem 

48

Where do the parasympathetic nerves that hitch-hike on the oculomotor nerve arise from? 

The Edingere Westphal parasympathetic nuclei inside it 

49

What course does the oculomotor nerve and associated sympathetic fibres take? 

Runs through cavernous sinus and then through the superior orbital fissure 

50

When do the parasympathetics leave the oculomotor nerve? 

After it passes through the ciliary ganglion 

51

What happens once the parasympathetic fibres have left the oculomotor nerve?

They hitch hike on small branches from V1/Va

52

What do the post-ganglionic parasympathetic nerves from the oculomotor nerve innervate? 

  • Ciliary body
  • Sphincter pupillae

 

53

What is the sphincter pupillae responsible for?

The pupillary light reflex

54

What course does the facial nerve and its associated parasympathetics take? 

Arises in brainstem, travels inside the petrous part of the temporal bone, and then branches into chora tympani and greater petrosal nerves

55

Where do the parasympathetics travelling on the greater petrosal nerve synapse? 

At the pterygopalatine ganglion

56

Where do the parasympathetics travelling on the chorda tympani synapse? 

Submandibular ganglion 

57

Where do the nerves from the pteryogopalatine ganglion go? 

To the lacrimal gland and mucosal glands in nasal/oral cavity

58

Where do the nerves from the submandibular ganglion go to? 

The salivary glands; submandibular and sublingual 

59

What is pathology of the facial nerve complex? 

Because three branches of the facial nerve are given off in the petrous bone 

60

What happens in pathology at or before the geniculate ganglion? 

May involve all parasympathetic functions carried within CN VII

61

What happens in pathology after the geniculate ganglion? 

Lacrimal glands are spared, as the pathology does not involve the greater petrosal nerve

62

What course does the glossopharyngeal nerve and its associated parasympathetics take? 

Arises, goes through the jugular foramen, and then branches into the tympanic nerve, then divides into a plexus. The plexus exits from the petrous part of the temporal bone through the foramen ovale to the lesser petrosal nerve 

63

What does the tympanic nerve supply?

Sensory to the middle ear

64

Where do the parasympathetics hitch-hiking on the glossopharyngeal nerve synapse? 

Otic ganglion

65

What do the parasympathetics hitch-hiking on the glossopharyngeal nerve supply? 

Parotid

66

Where does the vagus nerve arise from? 

The medulla of the brainstem

67

Where do the parasympathetics hitch hiking on the vagus nerve synapse? 

At a ganglino at, or in, the target tissue

68

What are the target tissues for parasympathetics of the vagus nerve? 

Glands in larynx, respiratory tract, GI tract, etc

69

Where is the parasympathetic sacral outflow/ 

S2-4

70

What do the parasympathetics innervate in the head and neck? 

  • Smooth muscle of iris (sphincter pupillae)
  • Smooth muscle of ciliary body 
  • Lacrimal glands
  • Salivary and mucosal glands

71

What does the sphincter pupillae do? 

Makes pupil smaller

72

What does the smooth muscle of the ciliary body do? 

Controls thickness of the lens