Flashcards in Cancer Screening Deck (24):
What are the necessary components for a particular cancer to be screened?
high prevalence, serious consequences, detectable preclinical phase, effective tx for presymptomatic disease
Survival rate of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer if detected and treated when the cancer is still localized
90% 5yr survival rate
These are detectable in the preclinical phase of colorectal cancer
What are the recommendations for a colonoscopy?
Every 10 years, beginning at age 50
a thin, flexible sigmoidoscope is inserted into the rectum. examines the lower third of the colon
examines entire colon and distal part of small bowel. allows opportunity for removal of lesions
What are screening recommendations if you have a 1st degree relative diagnosed with colon CA before age 60 or 2 1st degree relatives at any age?
Screening colonoscopy age 40 or 10 years prior to earliest family diagnosis. Repeat screen every 5 years
What are screening recommendations for familial adenomatous polyposis?
Annual sigmoidoscopy starting age 10-12
What are screening recommendations for Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer?
Colonoscopy q1-2 years beginning age 20-25 or 10 years prior to earliest CA diagnosis in family
What are colonoscopy recommendations if past screenings have shown any adenoma w/high grade dysplasia or villous features, or multiple adenomas (≥3)
repeat colonoscopy in 3 yrs
What are colonoscopy recommendations if past screenings have shown 1-2 small (<1cm) tubular adenomas w/ low grade dysplasia only?
Repeat colonoscopy in 5 years-10 years
When do the majority of breast cancers occur?
after women reach 50 yrs of age
At what age are mammograms recommended?
beginning at age 50. start talking with patients at age 40
American cancer society recommendations for cervical cancer screening
screening at age 21 unless they have HIV or are immunocompromised. cytology only every 3 yrs
When can women stop having pap smears?
after 65 if adequate screening in the past 10 years w/ 2 negative screens. otherwise age 75
T/F women who have had a hysterectomy without removal of the cervix do not need pap smears
false. only women who have had total hysterectomy (removal of uterus and cervix) may choose stop having paps, unless it was done to tx cervical cancer/pre-cancer
Complications of prostate cancer tx
sexual dysfxn, urinary incontinence, bowel dysfxn
Can detect tumors in the posterior and lateral aspects of the prostate. Cannont detect those that are not peripheral or are stage T1
digital rectal examination
T/F A negative digital rectal exam does NOT reduce the morbidity or mortality of prostate
When is a digital rectal exam recommended?
only if a man is symptomatic
At what PSA level will 42-64% of patients have prostate CA?
At what PSA levels are cancers organ confined and potentially curable, but associated with a high false-positive rate?
Screening age recommendations for prostate cancer
discussion begun at age 50. PSA level checked every 2-4yrs. Stop when man has less than 10yr life expectancy