Imaging and Oncology Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Imaging and Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Imaging and Oncology Deck (32):
1

Most common imaging. Uses ionizing radiation.

xrays

2

Good for bones, kidney/gallstones, lungs. Not as good for soft tissues and brain

xrays

3

Most common location for bone lesions

metaphysis

4

What does stippled calcification on xray indicate?

cartilage

5

What does ground glass appearance of bone on xray indicate?

fibrous dysplasia

6

T/F if you see a lesion surrounded by a reactive cortical rim, the lesion is most likely malignant

false it is most likely benign

7

Can differentiate structures of close physical density. Eliminates superimposition of organs. Show calcified and hemorrhagic lesions. Can be shown in multiple planes or even as a 3D image

CT scans

8

Good for evaluation of masses in the chest, screening for colorectal tumors, intracranial neoplasms, and staging abdominal cancer

CT scans

9

Usually done with CT. Requires bowel prep, no need for sedation, cannot do biopsies

virtual colonoscopy

10

Continuous X-rays used to obtain real time moving images of internal structures. Can use to help guide fine needle biopsies. Prolonged procedures can lead to skin burns. Small cancer risk

fluoroscopy

11

uses low energy xrays to generate images

mammography

12

T/F normal breast tissue has masses

true it isn't homogenous

13

Cause of most abnormal mammogram findings

benign changes

14

Radio-isotope is injected intravenously. 3 hours later the patient is scanned with a gamma camera. Provides a 2 dimensional image

Bone scans

15

Measures bone metabolism or remodeling

bone scans

16

What will arthritis look like on bone scan?

hot spots around joints

17

Especially useful in lymphomas and lung cancers

PET scans

18

Can marrow replacing tumors be visualized on bone scans?

they are cold (unseen) until cortical disruption occurs

19

Detects active, rapidly growing tumors. Used to detect metastatic disease. assess response to cancer treatment

PET scans

20

Good for small spinal lesions (osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma)

SPECT scan

21

Type of MRI where water is dark, fat is bright

T1 scans

22

Type of MRI where water is bright and fat is dark

T2 scans

23

MRI that is better at detecting tumors and infarcts

T2

24

improve visibility of structures, especially small tumors that don’t cause much edema

contrast agents (usually gadolinium)

25

High frequency sound waves. Reflect an echo off of tissues. Usually seen as 2D image

Ultrasound

26

Recommended for 30 pack year smoking h/o

low dose CT

27

Best means to find early curable cancers - cancers too small to be detected by touch in the breasts.

Mammograms

28

Only breast screening found to decrease mortality

mammography

29

Describe the stages of tumors

0-in situ. 1-localized. 2-early locally advanced. 3- late locally advanced. IV-metastatic

30

Where are mets of the spine usually seen on xrays?

base of pedicles (winking owl sign)

31

Best predictor of survival after cancer treatment

PET scans

32

How would you work up a 1 cm nodule in healthy 40 y/o male, former smoker – hit in right chest by a softball?

PET scan (30% chance of being malignant)