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Oncology > Prostate Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prostate Cancer Deck (34):
1

Normal size of prostate gland

walnut

2

make fluid contained in the seminal fluid which nourishes sperm

prostate gland

3

Zone that surrounds proximal urethra

transition

4

Zone that surround ejaculatory ducts

central

5

Zone that surround distal urethra and where most BPH occurs

peripheral

6

Prognosis of prostate cancer

5 yr survival nearly 100%

7

Racial group more often affected by prostate cancer

African Americans

8

Presenting symptoms include increased urinary frequency, painful micturition, decreased stream, hematuria, painful ejaculation

prostate cancer

9

At what level is the PSA when prostate cancer develops

usually above 4

10

Factors that increase PSA

BPH, age, prostatitis

11

Relates PSA level to size of prostate

PSA density

12

Change in PSA over time

PSA velocity

13

low number suggests cancer, since more free PSA from normal prostate is degradated

Free PSA/Total PSA

14

Describe the levels of the Gleason scores

2-4 Best (cells still look normal). 5-7 Intermediate risk. 8-10 Worse (cells have few features of a normal cell and are likely to be aggressive)

15

Therapy for T1a patient

if greater than 60 follow with no therapy

16

Therapy for a T1b, T1c, T2 patient

radical prostatectomy or high dose radiation

17

Therapy for a T3 (stage 3) patient

radiation

18

How long is the average doubling time of a prostate tumor?

slow, 2-4 yrs

19

Nerve sparing procedure. allows neurovascular bundles on either side of prostate that control erectile fxn. Remaining Urethra is sewn to bladder neck over a catheter

Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy (RRP)

20

Whole prostate can be examined histologically.
Surgeon has access to lymph nodes to test if prostate cancer cells have left the tumor. Surgical margin can be examined

Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy (RRP)

21

Cannot access regional lymph nodes. Slight increase in risk of rectal injury and associated complications

Perineal Prostatectomy

22

Radioactive seed implants into prostate. ED less common side effect

brachytherapy

23

Maximize damage to the prostate and minimize damage to surrounding tissues. ED less common side effect

External Beam Radiation

24

initial therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease

hormonal therapy

25

What hormones do prostate cells and prostate cancer cells depend on for survival and growth?

androgens

26

may be performed prior to prostatectomy or radiation in order to shrink the tumor. standard method of treating advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

androgen ablation therapy (ie hormone therapy)

27

surgical removal of the testicles.

orchiectomy (castration)

28

Name the LHRH analogs

Goserelin (Zolodex)
Leuprolide (Lupron)

29

Name the antiandrogens

Flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide

30

Primary value when starting LHRH to limit the flare reaction

antiandrogens

31

Consequences of this treatment include: impotence, decreased libido, hot flashes, weight gain, fatigue, loss of bone/muscle mass

androgen removal

32

Treatment of hormone refractory metastatic disease

Docetaxel (every 3 wks), prednisone, and bisphosphonates

33

Complications of anti-adrogen therapy

diarrhea and hepatic dysfxn

34

5-alpha reductase inhibitor, blocks intracellular conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone

Finasteride