Pathophysiology of Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathophysiology of Cancer Deck (49):
1

Cell growth is uncoordinated and uncontrolled due to lack of normal controls over cell growth and division

cancer

2

These cells are not growing unchecked. They still resemble the cells of the tissue from which they arose. The body has signaled the need for these cells

hyperplasia and hypertrophy

3

Process of cell division. Development of new to replace the old or just to make more as needed

proliferation

4

Cells become more specialized with each mitotic division

differentiation

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Programmed cell death. Necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis

apoptosis

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Phase of cell cycle where cellular contents excluding the chromosomes are duplicated

G1

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Phase of the cell cycle where each of the 46 chromosomes is duplicated by the cell

S

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Phase of the cell cycle where the cell "double checks" the duplicated chromosomes and makes repairs

G2

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Proteins that control the entry and progression of cells through the cell cycle. Bind to CDKs to activate them

cyclins

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Important in regulating cell cycle checkpoints during which mistakes in DNA replication are repaired

CKD inhibitors

11

basis for development of new cancer treatment drugs

Manipulation of cyclins, CDKs and CKIs

12

responsible for regenerating a specific line of cells

Progenitor/Parent cells

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less differentiated then progenitor cells and they can produce multiple types of progenitor cells

stem cells

14

Noncancerous tumors. Well differentiated cells that resemble their tissue of origin

benign neoplasms

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Grow rapidly, invade and destroy nearby tissue. Poorly differentiated cells. More cells seen in mitosis due to rapid proliferation

malignant neoplasms

16

Benign, contains finger like projections and grow on any surface

papilloma (wart)

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Loss of cell differentiation in cancerous tissue

anaplasia

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Cells and the nuclei are variable in size and shape

pleomorphic

19

Explain the grading scale of the degree of anaplasia

Grading scale I-IV: Grade I well differentiated and Grade IV poorly differentiated with marked anaplasia

20

Differences between the rate of growth for benign and malignant tumors

benign-progressive and slow. malignant- variable; the more undifferentiated the cells, the more rapid the rate of growth

21

Type of tumor that is usually encapsulated

benign

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Type of tumor that Gains access to blood and lymph channels to metastasize to other areas of the body

malignant

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category of malignant neoplasm that start out in a specific location. Cells may detach from the tumor mass and invade surrounding tissue. Enter blood or lymph system and spread to distant sites

solid tumors

24

catagory of malignant neoplasms that are Cells normally found in the blood and lymph. Disease is widespread at the onset

hematologic cancers

25

Localized. The cells have not crossed the basement membrane. Usually can be removed surgically or locally treated with low recurrence rates

Carcinoma in situ

26

A hallmark of cancer. High frequency of mutations in cancer cells may be due to a mutation phenotype, chromosomes are lost or gained, and intrachromosomal instability

genetic instability

27

T/F Cancer cells can proliferate without signaling from growth factors and some cancers produce their own growth factors

true

28

Term used to describe how cells often stop growing when they come in contact with each other. Cancer cells often ignore this rule

Cell density-dependent inhibition

29

What is different about the cell cohesiveness and adhesion of cancer cells compared to normal cells?

Cancer cells don’t stick together as tightly as normal cells. Permits shedding of the tumor’s surface cells

30

What is different about the lifespan of cancer cells compared to normal cells?

Cancer cells have an unlimited life span in contrast to normal cells and can divide an infinite amount of times

31

clinically useful as markers to indicate the presence, recurrence or progressive growth of cancer

tumor antigens

32

How does cancer spread by direct invasion and extension?

Seeding of cancer cells into body cavities. Spread through the blood or lymph pathways

33

Occurs when a tumor sheds cells into body cavities. Can be a complication of surgical excision

Seeding

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initial lymph node into which the primary tumor drains

sentinel node

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The ratio of dividing cells to resting cells

growth fraction

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Length of time it takes for the total mass of cells in a tumor to double. May decrease over time if blood supply becomes limited

doubling time

37

Has doubled 30 times. Contains more than 1 billion cells. Usually undetectable at smaller sizes

1 cm tumor mass

38

Gene overactivity. Normal genes that become cancer causing genes if mutated. Newly created genes from mutations

Protooncogenes

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Gene underactivity creates an environment in which cancer is promoted. Protective against disruption of the DNA

Tumor suppressor genes

40

Mutations in this gene have been associated with lung, breast, and colon cancer

TP53

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Results in the cell being vulnerable to cancer. Carcinogenic agents then produce irreversible changes in the genome of a previously normal cell

initiation

42

Growth is triggered by growth factors and chemicals. Can be reversible if the promoter substance is removed

promotion

43

When tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes to promote invasion, metastasis and growth

carcinogenesis

44

hypothesis suggests the immune system plays a key role in resistance against the development of tumors

immune surveillance hypothesis

45

among the most potent of the procarcinogens. Produced from animal fat in the process of charcoal-broiling meats, Present in smoked meats and fish, and present in cigarette smoke – produced in the combustion of tobacco

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

46

Can alter retinoid metabolism which is a needed antioxidant. Enhances the carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke

alcohol

47

Name the four DNA viruses associated with human cancers

HPV, EBV (Epstein-Barr virus), HBV (Hepatitis B virus), HHV-8 (Human herpesvirus-8)

48

What happens when you're infected with EBV with a normal or abnoraml immune system?

Normal immune function = infectious mononucleosis. Abnormal immune function or concurrent infection = sustained B-lymphocyte proliferation

49

Only known retrovirus to cause cancer in humans. Endemic in parts of Japan. Transmission of infected T cells through sexual intercourse, blood or breast milk

Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)