Clinical Pathologies of the Eye, Orbit, and Associated Stuctures Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Clinical Pathologies of the Eye, Orbit, and Associated Stuctures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Pathologies of the Eye, Orbit, and Associated Stuctures Deck (57):
1

What is the most common orbital wall fracture? 

The floor (inferior wall) 

2

How can the floor of the orbit fracture?

Following direct impact to the front of the eye

3

What is a fracture of the orbital floor known as? 

An orbital blow out fracture

4

What is conjunctivitis? 

When the conjunctivae becomes inflamed

5

What happens to the eye in conjunctivitis? 

Blood vessels dilate and the eye appears red

6

What causes glaucoma?

Increased intra-ocular pressure due to the obstruction of drainage of aqueous humour

7

What are the types of glaucoma? 

  • Open-angle glaucoma
  • Closed-angle glaucoma

 

8

What is the main risk factor for glaucoma? 

Increasing age

 

9

What happens to glaucoma if left untreated? 

Leads to irreversible damage and death of the optic nerve, causing impairment of vision and blindness

10

What is an open angle glaucoma caused by? 

Blockage within trabecular meshwork, which drains into the canal of Schlemm

11

Describe the development of open-angle glaucoma

Develops painlessly and insidiously over time

12

What is the result of glaucoma developing painlessly and insidiously over time? 

Can be difficult to pick up 

13

What does treatment of open-angle glaucoma involve?

Topical medications (eye drops) that reduce the production of aqueous humour and/or increase its drainage 

14

What medications are used in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma? 

  • ß-blockers
  • Timolol

 

15

What may be required if the treatments for open-angle glaucoma fail? 

Surgery; Trabeculectomy

16

When are signs of glaucoma screened for? 

Opticians screen for signs during routine eye tests

17

How can a rise in intra-ocular pressure be detected? 

By directing a brief puff of air against the front of the eye (cornea)

18

What signs of glaucoma can be detected on eye examination? 

  • Cupping of the optic disc
  • Visual field loss

 

19

What is a closed-angle glaucoma? 

When the irido-corneal angle is narrowed by the peripheral edge of the iris 

20

What does closed-angle glaucoma? 

Rapid rise in intra-ocular pressure

21

What is more common, open or closed angle glaucoma? 

Open

22

Who is at most risk of closed angle glaucoma?

Long-sighted middle aged, or elderly people 

23

What is true of the acute presentation of a closed-angle glaucoma? 

It is an opthalmic emergency

24

Why is the acute presentation of a closed-angle glaucoma an opthalmic emergency? 

It requires rapid recognition and management, as irreversible sight loss can occur within a few hours 

25

How does a closed-angle glaucoma present? 

  • Sudden onset of a painful red eye
  • Blurred vision or halos around objects
  • Fixed or sluggish semi-dilated, often irregular, oval-shaped pupil
  • Nausea and vomiting

 

26

What does the management of closed-angle glaucoma involve? 

  • Instilling muscarinic eye drops
  • Strong analgesia
  • Drugs to reduce intra-ocular pressure

While awaiting an emergency opthalmology opinion

27

What muscarinic eye drops can be used in closed-angle glaucoma?

Pilocarpine

 

28

When can cataracts occur? 

As we age

29

What causes cataracts? 

Degradation of proteins in the lens can cause it to become clouded and less transparent 

30

How quickly do cataracts develop? 

Gradually develop

31

What can cataracts cause? 

Significant visual impairment

32

How can cataracts be treated?

Surgery

33

What is retinal detatchment? 

When the retina begins to pull away from the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen and nutrients

34

What can cause retinal detatchment? 

Due to age or trauma

35

Why can retinal detachment occur? 

Occurs because sclera and choroid develop together, but the retina doesn't, so it's the first thing to tear off

36

What can happen if a retinal detachment is not caught early enough? 

Can cause blindness

37

Why can retinal detachment cause blindness if not caught early enough? 

Due to loss of blood supply to retina

38

What does a lesion of the oculomotor nerve affect?

Most of the extraocular muscles

39

What happens to the affected eye in an oculomotor nerve palsy? 

The affected eye is displaced laterally and inferiorly

40

What muscle displaces the affected eye laterally in oculomotor nerve palsies?

Lateral rectus

41

What muscle displaces the affected eye inferiorly in oculomotor nerve palsies?

Superior oblique

42

What does a lesion of the trochlear nerve palsy affect? 

Will paralyse superior oblique muscle 

43

How does a trochlear nerve palsy present? 

No obvious affect on the resting orientation of the eyeball, but patient will complain of diplopia and may develop a head tilt away from the site of lesion

44

What does a lesion of the abducens nerve cause? 

Will paralyse the lateral rectus muscle

45

What happens to the affected eye in trochlear nerve palsies? 

Affected eye will be adducted by the resting tone of the medial rectus

46

What is a style? 

A small, painful cyst on the inside or outside of the eyelid

47

What is a stye usually caused by? 

A bacterial infection 

48

What does a stye usually affect? 

One eye

49

Does a stye affect vision? 

No

50

What are the main symptoms of a stye? 

  • Painful yellow lump on or in the eyelid
  • Redness of eye or eyelid
  • A watery eye, in some cases

 

51

What often happens with styes? 

They get better withour treatment

52

What is a Meibomian cyst, or Chalazion? 

A common condition caused by a blockage of a gland in the eyelid

53

Can Meibomian cysts get infected? 

Rarely

54

How can Meibomian cysts be treated?

With injection, or removed with small operation

55

What are the symptoms of a Meibomian cyst? 

  • Small lump on eyelid
  • Mild pain or irritation

 

56

What is papillodema?

An optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure

57

Give 5 examples of things that can cause raised intracranial pressure

  • Brain tumour
  • Hypotonia
  • Tumours of the frontal lobe
  • Glaucoma
  • Local lesion