M&R Session 9- Pharmacokinetics Of Drug Administration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in M&R Session 9- Pharmacokinetics Of Drug Administration Deck (15)
0

What is the advantage of parental administration?

Concentrates the drug at the site of action and therefore reduces systemic absorption and unwanted side effects.

1

During drug administration, when will a steady state be reached?

After 5 half lives of the drug.

2

What is needed if an immediate effect of the drug is needed?

A loading dose.

3

What 3 things do you need to consider when getting a drug into a patient (pharmaceutical process)?

-the formulation of the drug- tablet or liquid
-compliance of the drug
-the site of administration.

4

What is oral bioavailability and what is it expressed as?

It is the proportion of an oral dose of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged.
Amount and rate.

5

What is the therapeutic ratio?

The maximum tolerated dose/the minimum effective dose.

6

What is first pass metabolism?

The phenomenon that drugs taken orally will travel from the gut to the liver where they could be prematurely metabolised before reaching the systemic circulation.

7

How is first pass metabolism avoided?

Giving a drug via a parenteral, sublingual or rectal route.

8

What is 1st order kinetics?

When the rate of elimination of the drug is proportional to the drug level.

9

What is zero order kinetics?

When the rate of drug elimination is constant.

10

How are drugs metabolised in the liver?

Phase I- the drug is made more active by oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis by an enzyme system- cytochrome P450.
Phase II- this reactive intermediate is conjugated with a polar molecule through glucaronidation or sulphate conjugation to make the drug water soluble and inactive.

11

When is the fact the enzymes are inducible and inhibitable important?

-when the drug has a low therapeutic ratio
-when the drug is being used at its minimum effective concentration
-when the drug metabolism is of zero order kinetics

12

Which drugs are excreted by the kidney?

Ionised
Lipid insoluble

13

What is the volume of distribution of a drug?

The theoretical volume into which a drug has distributed if this occurred instantaneously.

14

When do drugs exert an effect?

When they are free/unbound.

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