MSK Session 5- The vertebral column Flashcards Preview

SOPHIE'S ESA 2 > MSK Session 5- The vertebral column > Flashcards

Flashcards in MSK Session 5- The vertebral column Deck (38)
0

What proportion of height does the vertebral column account for?

42%

1

What is the vertebral column made of?

33 small bones joined together by ligaments

2

What is the vertebral column the main component of?

The axial skeleton

3

How long is the vertebral column?

70-75 cm

4

What bones does the vertebral column articulate with? (4)

Head,
Scapula,
Ribs,
Hip bones

5

What is primary curvature?

The anterior concave nature of the spinal cord found in the foetus

6

What is Kyphosis?

Exaggeration of the anterior curvature of the thoracic spine. (Leaning forwards)

7

When does the cervical spine develop the first posterior concavity?

3 months old when baby starts to lift head.

8

When does the lumbar spine develop a posterior concavity?

6-12 months when child begins to stand and walk

9

What is lordosis?

An exaggeration of the posterior cervical and/or lumbar spine. (Leaning backwards)

10

What happens to the vertebral column in old age?

Reverts back to the C shape of the foetus as secondary curvatures disappear.

11

How many discrete and fused vertebrae are there?

-discrete= 24
-fused= 9

12

What do discrete vertebrae allow?

Flexibility

13

What emerges from the vertebral arches?

2 transverse processes and 1 spinous process

14

What is the pedicle?

The part of the vertebral arch between the body and transverse process.

15

What is the lamina?

The part of the vertebral arch between the transverse and spinous process.

16

Where are articular facets found?

At the junction between the pedicle and lamina

17

What joints form between adjacent vertebral arches, and what are their function?

Synovial joints
Prevent anterior displacements of vertebrae.

18

What is an intervertebral foramen formed from and what does it allow?

Formed from the superior and inferior vertebral notches above and below the pedicle.
Allows segmental nerves to pass from the cord to the periphery.

19

What are intervertebral discs responsible for?

Flexibility and act as a shock absorber

20

What length of the vertebral column do intervertebral discs account for?

19 cm.
25%

21

What are the two regions of the intervertebral disc called?

Central- nucleus palposus
Peripheral- annulus fibrosus

22

What are the two major ligaments of the vertebral column?

Anterior longitudinal and posterior longitudinal

23

Which longitudinal ligament is stronger?

Anterior

24

Why is the ligamentum flavour yellow?

High content of elastic fibres

25

What does the ligamentum flavum join?

Laminae of adjacent vertebrae

26

What does the supraspinatous ligament do?

Joins spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae

27

What do interspinous ligaments do?

Join spinous processes along their adjacent borders

28

What does the ligament nuchae do? (3)

Maintain the secondary curvature of cervical spine
Helps the cervical spine support the head.
Major site of attachment of neck and trunk muscles

29

What are the two distinguishing features of cervical vertebrae?

They have a bifid spinous process
They have oval transverse foramen

30

What are the two distinguishing features of thoracic vertebrae?

Facets on the sides of the body
Coastal facets on the transverse processes

31

What are the two distinguishing features of lumbar vertebrae?

Lack of transverse foramina
Lack of coastal facets

32

What is the order of size of vertebra? (Big to small)

Lumbar
Thoracic
Cervical

33

What is the atlas?

C1

34

What is the axis?

C2

35

What is unusual about the atlas? (2)

No body
No spinous process

36

What is the function of the Dens on the axis?

Prevents horizontal displacement of the atlas.

37

What is scoliosis?

Lateral bending of the spine

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