Flashcards in MSK Session 5- The vertebral column Deck (38)
What proportion of height does the vertebral column account for?
What is the vertebral column made of?
33 small bones joined together by ligaments
What is the vertebral column the main component of?
The axial skeleton
How long is the vertebral column?
What bones does the vertebral column articulate with? (4)
What is primary curvature?
The anterior concave nature of the spinal cord found in the foetus
What is Kyphosis?
Exaggeration of the anterior curvature of the thoracic spine. (Leaning forwards)
When does the cervical spine develop the first posterior concavity?
3 months old when baby starts to lift head.
When does the lumbar spine develop a posterior concavity?
6-12 months when child begins to stand and walk
What is lordosis?
An exaggeration of the posterior cervical and/or lumbar spine. (Leaning backwards)
What happens to the vertebral column in old age?
Reverts back to the C shape of the foetus as secondary curvatures disappear.
How many discrete and fused vertebrae are there?
What do discrete vertebrae allow?
What emerges from the vertebral arches?
2 transverse processes and 1 spinous process
What is the pedicle?
The part of the vertebral arch between the body and transverse process.
What is the lamina?
The part of the vertebral arch between the transverse and spinous process.
Where are articular facets found?
At the junction between the pedicle and lamina
What joints form between adjacent vertebral arches, and what are their function?
Prevent anterior displacements of vertebrae.
What is an intervertebral foramen formed from and what does it allow?
Formed from the superior and inferior vertebral notches above and below the pedicle.
Allows segmental nerves to pass from the cord to the periphery.
What are intervertebral discs responsible for?
Flexibility and act as a shock absorber
What length of the vertebral column do intervertebral discs account for?
What are the two regions of the intervertebral disc called?
Central- nucleus palposus
Peripheral- annulus fibrosus
What are the two major ligaments of the vertebral column?
Anterior longitudinal and posterior longitudinal
Which longitudinal ligament is stronger?
Why is the ligamentum flavour yellow?
High content of elastic fibres
What does the ligamentum flavum join?
Laminae of adjacent vertebrae
What does the supraspinatous ligament do?
Joins spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae
What do interspinous ligaments do?
Join spinous processes along their adjacent borders
What does the ligament nuchae do? (3)
Maintain the secondary curvature of cervical spine
Helps the cervical spine support the head.
Major site of attachment of neck and trunk muscles
What are the two distinguishing features of cervical vertebrae?
They have a bifid spinous process
They have oval transverse foramen
What are the two distinguishing features of thoracic vertebrae?
Facets on the sides of the body
Coastal facets on the transverse processes
What are the two distinguishing features of lumbar vertebrae?
Lack of transverse foramina
Lack of coastal facets
What is the order of size of vertebra? (Big to small)
What is the atlas?
What is the axis?
What is unusual about the atlas? (2)
No spinous process
What is the function of the Dens on the axis?
Prevents horizontal displacement of the atlas.