Flashcards in MoD Session 9- Neoplasia 2- Invasion And Metastasis And The Effect Of Neoplasms Deck (21)
What are the most lethal features of malignant neoplasms?
Invasion and metstasis
Do benign cells metastase?
What is the result of malignant cells metastasing?
An increased tumour burden.
What are the three steps of invasion and metastasis of a malignant cell from a primary to a secondary site?
1. Growth and invasion at the primary site
2. Enter a transport system and invade a secondary site
3. Grow at the secondary sure to form a new tumour.
What is colonisation?
Growth of the malignant cells at a secondary site to form a new tumour.
Why is metastasis inefficient?
Because there are millions of cancer cells but only a few metastasise.
What are the three alterations for invasion to occur and what do they cause?
-adhesion, motility and proteolysis
They create a carcinoma cell phenotype that is more like mesenchymal cells than epithelial cells.= epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
What are the three route of transport for cells?
1. Blood vessels
2. Lymphatic vessels
3. Fluid in body cavities
When can a clinical metastasis occur?
When colonisation has occurred.
What are Micrometastases and what are they responsible for?
They are tiny surviving deposits that do not grow.
What two factors determine the secondary tumour site?
1. Regional drainage
2. The seed and soil phenomenon
What do carcinomas typically spread via?
What do sarcomas typically spread via?
What is the likelihood of metastasis related to?
The size of the primary neoplasm
What four factors are local neoplasm effects due to?
1. Direct invasion and destruction
4. Blocking of tubes and orifices.
How do cachexia, malaise, immunosuppression and thrombosis come about?
They are systemic effects of neoplasms that arise due to the increased tumour burden and therefore an increased parasitic effect and increased cytokine release.
Give examples of miscellaneous systemic effects of neoplasms
What is cachexia?
Reduced appetite and weight loss.
What is a malignant neoplasm relapse typically due to?
Micrometastases starting to grow
Which neoplasm causes ectopic ACTH release?
Small cell bronchial carcinoma