Flashcards in MoD Session 6- Atheroma Deck (39)
An accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lipid in the intima and media of large and medium sized arteries.
A hardening and thickening of arterial walls as a result of atheroma.
A hardening and thickening of artery and arteriole walls as a result of hypertension and DM.
What are the 3 macroscopic features of atheroma?
1. Fatty streak
2. Simple plaque
3. Complex plaque
What is a fatty streak?
A yellow, raised lipid deposit in the intima.
What is a simple plaque?
A yellow/white raised, widely distributed deposit.
How does a complex plaque form?
By the enlargement and coalescing of simple plaques.
What are the complex plaque complications? (4)
Calcification, thrombosis, haemorrhage and aneurysm formation.
What are the 5 common sites of atheroma formation?
What are the 3 early microscopic features of atheroma?
-smooth muscle cell proliferation
-foam cell accumulation (phagocytosis of lipids)
-extracellular lipid deposition
What are the 5 later microscopic features of atheroma?
-fibrosis and necrosis
-disrupted internal lamina which extends into media
-in growth of blood vessels
What is the difference between angina and an MI?
If you stop what is causing the pain, in angina the pain will go away, whereas it will not in an MI.
Obstruction of the blood supply to an organ or tissue causing local death of the tissue.
Typically by a thrombus/embolus
An inadequate blood supply to an organ.
A excessive, localised swelling of the wall of an artery.
Name 5 clinical effects of atheroma
-ischaemic heart disease
-peripheral vascular disease
-abdominal aortic aneurysm
5 things ischaemic heart disease can cause
How does a cerebral infarction/stroke come about in cerebral Ischaemia?
Atherosclerosis in carotid arteries
Thrombus and then embolus formation
Embolus occludes cerebral arteries
What 3 things can mesenteric Ischaemia cause?
What is intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease?
It is interval pain in calves due to exercise
What is leriche syndrome?
It is claudication of the buttocks, and impotence
What is ischaemic rest pain?
When there is claudication (due to artery obstruction) even when no exercise is being performed.
Name 11 risk factors of atheroma
-apolipoprotein E genotype
Which gender is more susceptible to atheroma formation?
What are associated physical signs of familial hypercholesterolaemia? (3)
What are xanthelasmas?
Foam cell accumulations in the dermis
What is corneal arcus?
A thin pale arc around the cornea of the eye that is cholesterol deposits
What is the predicted link between hypertension and IHD?
That the higher pressure damages endothelial cells
By what proportion does DM increase IHD risk by?
Doubles the risk