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What rib-related changes may accompany lumbarisation of T12?

a significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113 mm of the twelfth rib or it becomes absent


What T11 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

the inferior articular facet may change from flat, forward, medial, and downward to convex, forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet is unchanged


What is the usual way of identifying the number of cervicals, thoracics and lumbar vertebrae during imaging studies?

Identify vertebrae with ribs - they will be thoracics; those higher are cervicals, those lower are lumbars


What is characteristic of lumbarisation of S1?

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala


What is the incidence of sacralization of L5 in the population?

41% to 85%


Which segment demonstrated the greatest morphological variation along the spine?



What articular facet changes accompany sacralization of L5?



What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

up to 14%


What is characteristic of sacralization od Co1?

the premature fusion of Co1 to the sacrum


What is the characteristic of coccygealization of S5?

the separation of S5 from sacrum and its' premature fusion to Co1

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