Anorectal Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anorectal Disease Deck (17)
1

What are haemorrhoids?

Swollen vessels, usually veins, in/around the rectum and anus

2

Painful bleeding usually occurs with haemorrhoids. True/False?

False
Classically painless bleeding

3

Is there usually weight loss + change in bowel habit associated with haemorrhoids?

No

4

List investigations for haemorrhoids

PR exam
Rigid sigmoidoscopy
Flexible sigmoidoscopy in pts older than 50
Proctoscopy

5

List treatment for symptomatic haemorrhoids

Scleroant therapy
Ice packs, gel, cream
Band ligation
Haemorrhoidectomy
Artery ligation

6

Why is haemorrhoidal artery ligation essentially pain-free?

Little/no sensory neurones in lower rectum

7

What is rectal prolapse?

Protruding mucosal mass from anus, usually during defecation

8

Rectal prolapse causes loss of anal tone. True/False?

True

9

Most patients are unable to undergo surgery for rectal prolapse. True/False?

True

10

What are anal fissures?

Tear in the anal margin during passage of (constipated) stool

11

Anal fissures are most commonly associated with ulcerative colitis. True/False?

False
More likely to be with Crohn's disease

12

How do anal fissures classically present?

Acute onset of anal pain following passage of constipated stool
Feels like shitting a shard of glass

13

List treatment for anal fissure

Stool softener, diet advice
Pharmacological sphincterotomy (relax sphincter using diltiazem)

14

What is fistula in ano?

Abnormal epithelial connection between anal canal + peri-anal skin

15

Which conditions have a rare association with anal fistulas?

Tuberculosis
Crohn's disease
Carcinoma

16

How does fistula in ano classically present?

Abscess formation

17

List treatment for fistula in ano

Cut it open
Seton stitch
Drainage
Fistulotomy