Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (52)
Which organism is the commonest cause of food poisoning?
Which organisms are more likely to cause outbreaks of food poisoning?
E. coli 0157
What is the incubation period for Staph. aureus and Bacillus cereus?
Staph. aureus produces a toxin which is rapidly absorbed by the stomach. True/False?
What is the incubation period for Salmonella and Cl. perfringens?
What is the incubation period for Campylobacter and E. coli 0157?
Which foods does Campylobacter mainly colonise?
Poor food preparaiton
Is Campylobacter likely to spread from person to person?
Which foods does Salmonella mainly colonise?
Meat, animal guts
What is the significance of the antigens found on Salmonella?
Different antigens on different strains, so specific antibodies will agglutinate
Which foods does E. coli 0157 colonise?
Raw milk, water
Wide variety really
Is E. coli 0157 likely to spread from person to person?
Who is most at risk of complications from E. coli 0157 infection?
Children + elderly
What is the name of the toxin produced by E. coli 0157?
Which syndrome can result due to verotoxin?
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
What are the sites of action of antibiotics in a cell?
What is the main class of antibiotic which acts on the beta-lactam ring on the cell wall of bacteria?
Does antibiotic use lead to antibiotic resistance?
How does antibiotic use have public health consequences for other people, in terms of resistance?
Resistant bacteria are selected out in presence of antibiotic, and can spread between patients
What is meant by antimicrobial stewardship?
Prescribing optimum dosage and duration of antimicrobial treatment that results in best clinical outcome, prevention of infection and minimal resistance
What is gastroenteritis and what is the consequence regarding absorption?
Inflammation of stomach and small intestine
Limits absorption of nutrients and water
Which out of bacteria, viruses and parasites is the most common cause of gastroenteritis?
What is meant by toxin-mediated food poisoning?
Toxin has been preformed by the bacteria on the host before ingestion of food, leading to acute symptoms once the food has been eaten
List common organisms that produce preformed toxins
E. coli 0157
Acute enteritis often presents with fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and abdo pain. Is the diarrhoea usually bloody?
Acute colitis often presents with fever, diarrhoea and abdo pain. Is the diarrhoea usually bloody?
What are the main organisms that cause bloody diarrhoea?
E. coli 0157
What is the usual duration of Campylobacter infection?
Typhoid is an enteric fever like illness caused by which organism?
Which type of culture - urine, stool or blood - is key to diagnosing typhoid?
Stool and urine would be done too though
Name the 4 main stool investigations for infectious organisms, from most used to least
Which stool investigation is appropriate for Salmonella, Campylobacter and Shigella?
Which stool investigation is appropriate for Giardia, Amoebas and parasitic infections?
Which stool investigation is appropriate for Clostridium Difficile and E. coli 0157?
Which stool investigation is appropriate for Norovirus?
Which 3 markers assess the severity of C. difficile infection?
Suspicion of pseudomembranous colitis/toxic megacolon/ileus
WCC greater than 15
What is first line treatment for gastroenteritis?
Oral rehydration or IV fluids
Which antibiotic is commonly used for non-severe C. diff?
Which antibiotic is used for severe C. diff?
Which antibiotic is used for first recurrence of C. diff infection?
Which organism is the most common cause of traveller's diarrhoea?
E. coli 0157 (produces VTEC)
Which antibiotic is used for amoeba and giardia infections?
What is the commonest cause of viral diarrhoea in kids under 3 years old?
How is rotavirus spread?
Which virus is known as the winter vomiting bug?
How is norovirus spread?
Describe the nature of vomiting that comes with norovirus
Explosive and sudden
Lead to environmental contamination
What is the diagnostic test for rotavirus and norovirus?
PCR, on stool or vomit
Define SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome)
More than 2 of
Temperature over 38 or less than 36
RR over 20
WCC less than 4k or over 12k
SIRS + suspected/confirmed underlying infectious process
What is involved in the sepsis 6 treatment?
Take blood cultures + FBC + urine output
Give fluids + antibiotics + oxygen