Colonic Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Colonic Disease Deck (28)
1

What is a polyp?

A protrusion of an epithelial surface

2

What is an adenoma?

A benign epithelial tumour that produces glands

3

All polyps are adenomas. True/False?

False

4

What are the 3 types of polyp?

Pedunculated (stalks)
Serrated (from villous)
Flat

5

All adenomas are dysplastic and may form adenocarcinoma. True/False?

True

6

What is the primary treatment of adenocarcinoma of the colon?

Surgical excision

7

Colorectal carcinoma is found most commonly on which side - right or left?

Left (75%)

8

What is a diverticulum?

Outpouching of epithelial lining

9

What is the difference between diverticulosis and diverticulitis?

Diverticulosis = diverticular disease = the presence of diverticula
Diverticulitis = inflammation of diverticula

10

What is the proposed aetiology of diverticular disease?

Low fibre diet, high fatty diet
Reduces motility and increases colonic pressure

11

List some investigations for diverticular disease

Sigmoidoscopy
Barium enema

12

Which part of the colon is most susceptible to diverticular disease?

Sigmoid colon

13

What is a fistula?

Pathological connection/link between two epithelial surfaces

14

What would a fistula between the colon and the bladder be called?

Colovesical fistula

15

What are the main management procedures for diverticular disease?

Percutaneous drainage
Hartmann procedure

16

Describe Hartmann procedure

Remove sigmoid colon and connect colostomy bag to descending colon

17

What are the most common organisms that cause infective colitis?

C. difficile
Campylobacter
E. coli

18

Name some symptoms of acute and chronic colitis

Diarrhoea with/without blood
Cramping pain
Dehydration
Weight loss

19

List investigations for acute and chronic colitis

AXR
Stool culture
Sigmoidoscopy
Barium enema

20

Name some causes of large bowel obstruction

Colonic cancer
Volvulus
Faecal impaction
Pseudo-obstruction

21

Which part of the colon is most commonly affected by ischaemic colitis?

Sigmoid colon (diverticular disease too - it just gets all the shit...)

22

What is the most common cause of ischaemic colitis?

Atherosclerosis of mesenteric vessels

23

Which organism is mostly behind antibiotic-induced colitis?

C. difficile

24

How does C. difficile cause colitis?

Produces toxin A and B in response to broad-spectrum antibiotics which attack epithelium

25

What is the classic presentation of collagenous colitis?

Watery diarrhoea
Normal endoscopy

26

Familial adenomatous polyposis is a type of CRC caused by mutation in which gene?

APC (tumour suppressor) gene

27

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by mutation in which gene?

DNA mismatch repair gene

28

HNPCC is more common than FAP. True/False?

True