Flashcards in Colonic Disease Deck (28)
What is a polyp?
A protrusion of an epithelial surface
What is an adenoma?
A benign epithelial tumour that produces glands
All polyps are adenomas. True/False?
What are the 3 types of polyp?
Serrated (from villous)
All adenomas are dysplastic and may form adenocarcinoma. True/False?
What is the primary treatment of adenocarcinoma of the colon?
Colorectal carcinoma is found most commonly on which side - right or left?
What is a diverticulum?
Outpouching of epithelial lining
What is the difference between diverticulosis and diverticulitis?
Diverticulosis = diverticular disease = the presence of diverticula
Diverticulitis = inflammation of diverticula
What is the proposed aetiology of diverticular disease?
Low fibre diet, high fatty diet
Reduces motility and increases colonic pressure
List some investigations for diverticular disease
Which part of the colon is most susceptible to diverticular disease?
What is a fistula?
Pathological connection/link between two epithelial surfaces
What would a fistula between the colon and the bladder be called?
What are the main management procedures for diverticular disease?
Describe Hartmann procedure
Remove sigmoid colon and connect colostomy bag to descending colon
What are the most common organisms that cause infective colitis?
Name some symptoms of acute and chronic colitis
Diarrhoea with/without blood
List investigations for acute and chronic colitis
Name some causes of large bowel obstruction
Which part of the colon is most commonly affected by ischaemic colitis?
Sigmoid colon (diverticular disease too - it just gets all the shit...)
What is the most common cause of ischaemic colitis?
Atherosclerosis of mesenteric vessels
Which organism is mostly behind antibiotic-induced colitis?
How does C. difficile cause colitis?
Produces toxin A and B in response to broad-spectrum antibiotics which attack epithelium
What is the classic presentation of collagenous colitis?
Familial adenomatous polyposis is a type of CRC caused by mutation in which gene?
APC (tumour suppressor) gene
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by mutation in which gene?
DNA mismatch repair gene