Flashcards in Oesophageal Disease Deck (25)
Acute oesophagitis is more common than chronic oesophagitis. True/False?
What are some causes of acute oesophagitis?
Chemical abuse -> corrosion
Infection (herpes, candidiasis)
What is the main cause of chronic oesophagitis?
Reflux disease [reflux oesophagitis]
Define "reflux oesophagitis" (GORD)
Inflammation of the oesophagus due to reflux of acid from the stomach
What are the 3 main causes of GORD?
Poor oesophageal motility/clearance
Impaired mucosal barrier
What is the dominant immune cell that accompanies acid abuse?
Name 3 complications of reflux oesophagitis
Stricture formation due to scarring
Define "Barrett's Oesophagus"
Replacement of stratified squamous epithelium -> columnar epithelium [metaplastic change]
How is Barrett's Oesophagus pre-malignant?
Mucosa becomes unstable, and persistent acid insult increases risk of developing dysplasia and carcinoma
What is allergic oesophagitis?
Immune-mediated oesophagitis caused by reaction to food
Eosinophilic infiltrates present
Benign oesophageal tumours are rarer than malignant tumours. True/False?
What is the most common benign oesophageal tumour?
What are the two main types of malignant oesophageal tumour?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma of oesophagus is commoner in males. True/False?
Where is adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus most likely to develop? Why?
Lower 1/3 of oesophagus
Reflux insult is greatest here
What are the 3 main mechanisms of metastasis of oesophageal tumours?
Give examples of symptoms of GORD
What are the main investigations for GORD?
Manometry (pressure) studies
Name the ALARM Symptoms
Loss of weight
Recent progressive symptoms
Malaena or haematemesis
Antacids provide symptomatic relief and heal oesophagitis in GORD. True/False?
Provide symptom relief but no healing or preventative qualities
H2 receptor antagonists mainly provide symptomatic relief of GORD; give an example of one
Proton pump inhibitors provide symptomatic relief and heal oesophagitis. True/False?
When is surgery indicated for GORD?
To repair LOS
When PPIs ineffective (cheaper doing surgery than being on PPI for 7+ years)
Which investigations are indicated for diagnosing oesophageal cancer?