Blood Loss and Transfusion Products Flashcards Preview

Anesthesiology > Blood Loss and Transfusion Products > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Loss and Transfusion Products Deck (95):
1

The use of supportive therapies in patients to correct deficiencies until the underlying cause or disease process can be treated is that goal in what?

Transfusion or substitute treatment

2

What are 6 concerns with transfusions?

- Volume overload
- Electrolyte disturbances
- Immunogenicity
- Availability
- Cost
- Transmission of infection

3

What are 3 things to known going into a case of acute blood loss?

- PCV/TP (taken right before anesthesia)
- Anticipated losses
- Patient's total blood volume

4

Why is it important to know 20% blood loss?
Why is this number important?

- A loss of > or = 20% leads to a decrease in PCV to > or = 20%
- Oxygen carrying capacity

5

What is the minimum PCV value needed in order to carry oxygen?
what should be considered below this level?

- 21%
- Blood transfusion

6

Cotton tip applicators can hold how much blood?

0.2 mL

7

Gauze can hold about how much blood?

5-10 mL

8

Lab sponges can hold about how much blood?

50-100 mL

9

What is the best method to measure blood loss in gauze?

Weigh gauze before and after use.

10

How much blood can tubing hold?

About 120 mL

11

What are 4 examples of physiological signs that can indicate blood loss?

- Hypotension
- Tachycardia
- Baroreceptor reflex
- Pale mm, prolonged CRT

12

Blood volume is centralized during shock due to what?

Peripheral vasoconstriction

13

Injectable drugs and inhalants will have a more profound effect on patients in what state?

Shock

14

What does hemorrhage increase?

MAC

15

What does mean arterial pressure (MAP) equal?

CO x SVR

16

To restore circulating volume before signs occur is the goal of what?

A blood loss plan

17

What does cardiac output equal?

HR x SV

18

What are 3 volume replacement options?

- Crystalloid
- Colloid
- Blood products

19

What type of fluid is given with anything less than a 10% loss?

Crystalloid

20

Which has a longer shelf-life, a crystalloid or a colloid?

Colloid

21

What does BES stand for?

Balanced electrolyte solution

22

Crystalloid fluid therapy results in what?
How long does this last?

- Temporary increase in intravascular volume.
- About 15 minutes

23

What are 2 components missing from crystalloid fluid therapy?

- Proteins
- Oxygen carrying capacity

24

What are 3 effects of Hypertonic saline?

- Increase CO
- Increase ABP
- Decrease SVR

25

What are 2 fluid volumes increased by hypertonic saline?
What is the ratio?

- Plasma
- Interstitial fluid
- 2-4 mL plasma increase/1 mL hypertonic saline

26

What are 2 things improved by hypertonic saline use?

- Cardiovascular function
- Tissue perfusion

27

Are the effects of hypertonic saline short or long?

Short term

28

The use of hypertonic saline must be followed by what?

BES to avoid ICF deficit

29

What effect do large molecular weight molecules have on vascular volume?

Expands vascular volume

30

Do colloids have more or less redistribution compared to crystalloids?

Less redistribution

31

How much colloid is given?

1 mL colloid/mL lost

32

Colloid maintain a COP greater than what?

17 mmHg

33

What is the name of a veterinary hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying solution that can be used as a blood substitute?

Oxyglobin

34

What allows oxyglobin to be used in any species?

Lack antigenic RBC membrane

35

What are 2 characteristic of oxyglobin?

- O2 carrying capacity
- Volume expansion

36

How much oxyglobin is given?

10-30 mL/kg total at 10 mL/kg/hr

37

What are 4 advantages of oxyglobin?

- Multi-species use
- No testing (type/cross-match)
- T 1/2 = 18-26 hrs
- Stored for up to 3 years

38

What are 5 disadvantages of oxyglobin?

- Volume overload
- Discoloration
- Fever
- Diarrhea
- Death

39

What is the body's largest connective tissue?

Blood

40

What are 2 things dosage depends on?

- Patient physical status
- Response to treatment

41

Which type of therapy is favored?

Component therapy

42

What are 4 types of blood products commonly used?

- Whole blood
- Packed red blood cells
- Fresh frozen plasma
- Lyophilized albumin

43

With which 2 types of blood products does blood type matter?

- Whole blood
- Packed red blood cells

44

With which type of blood product does blood type only matter in cats?

Fresh frozen plasma

45

What are the 2 important blood groups for bovine?

- B
- J

46

What are the 3 important blood groups for canine?

- DEA 1.1
- DEA 1.2
- DEA 7

47

What are the 3 important blood groups for equine?

- A
- C
- Q

48

What are the 4 important blood groups for feline?

- A
- B
- AB
- Mik

49

What are the 2 important blood groups for ovine?

- B
- R

50

What is the RBC lifespan for bovine in days?

140-160

51

What is the RBC lifespan for canine in days?

110-120

52

What is the RBC lifespan for equine in days?

140-150

53

What is the RBC lifespan for feline in days?

75-80

54

What is the RBC lifespan for ovine in days?

64-94

55

Is it better to use DEA + or DEA - dog blood for donors?

DEA -

56

What is the minimum amount of time for antibodies to develop to transfused blood in a canine?

5 days

57

What should be done for any transfusions given 5 days or more after the initial transfusion?

Type and cross-match

58

What do cats have whether or not they have ever had a transfusion?

Naturally occurring preformed alloantibodies

59

T/F: All cats must be typed whether or not they have had a transfusion before.

True

60

What type of blood can type AB cats receive?

Type A

61

99% cats in the US are what blood type?

Type A

62

What are 2 indications for the use of whole blood?

- Acute blood loss/hemorrhage
- Anemia

63

What is the shelf-life of whole blood?

21-30 days

64

What does refrigeration do to whole blood?

Inactivates platelets & WBC

65

Why should a whole blood transfusion be completed within an hour?

To prevent bacterial contamination

66

What is the rule of thumb for whole blood transfusion?

2 mL/kg of donor blood will raise PCV by 1%

67

The amount of whole blood to be given is equal to what?

(desired PCV - actual PCV)/donor PCV x patient blood volume

68

What should always be done with whole blood?

Warmed passively using a filter

69

Should a pump be used to administer whole blood?

No, pumps will break up RBCs

70

What are 2 indications for packed red blood cells?

- Acute blood loss/hemorrhage
- Anemia

71

What is the shelf-life of packed red blood cells?

35 days

72

What are 2 things omitted from packed red blood cells?

- Platelets
- Clotting factors

73

What are 2 examples of anticoagulants?

- Heparin
- 3.8% sodium citrate

74

What is an indication for the use of fresh frozen plasma?

Coagulopathies

75

What is the shelf-life of fresh frozen plasma?

12 months at -30C

76

Can unused, thawed fresh frozen plasma be re-frozen without loss of function?

Yes if re-frozen within 1 hour of being thawed.

77

Plasma has to be frozen when to be made into fresh frozen plasma?

Within 8 hours of collection.

78

What are 4 components of fresh frozen plasma?

- Plasma
- All clotting factors
- Albumin
- Immunoglobulins

79

What much fresh frozen plasma has to be given to increase albumin 1 g/dL?

45 mL/kg

80

What are 2 routes of blood/plasma administration?

- IV
- IO

81

What is an electrolyte that can't be given with blood/plasma?
Why?

- Calcium
- Overcomes anticoagulant properties of citrate, will make product clot.

82

What type of fluid can not be given with blood/plasma?
Why?

- Hypotonic fluids
- Will cause hemolysis

83

What is given for a test dose?

0.25 mL/kg in the 1st 30 minutes

84

Acute adverse effects of transfusions are seen when?

During or within 1st few hours

85

Delayed adverse effects of transfusions are seen when?

After transfusion completion

86

What are 4 types of adverse effects of transfusions?

- Acute immunologic
- Acute non-immunologic
- Delayed immunologic
- Delayed non-immunologic

87

What are 3 examples of adverse immunologic effects?

- Hemolysis
- Febrile
- Urticaria

88

What are 4 factors found in cryoprecipitate?

- von Willebrand's factor
- Fibrinogen
- Factor XIII
- Factor VIII

89

The supernatant plasma that is removed from cryoprecipitate after being centrifuged is known as what?

Cryo-poor plasma

90

What is an indication for the use of cryo-poor plasma?

Treatment of rodenticide intoxication

91

Plasma prepared at lower centrifuge rate than packed red blood cell/plasma preparations is known as what?

Platelet-rich plasma

92

Cryopreserved canine platelet concentrations must be transfused slowly in order to prevent what?

Bradycardia

93

What can be administered to treat failure of passive transfer?

Serum

94

What can be given to increase COP?

Albumin

95

Does albumin have a long or short half-life?

Long