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Flashcards in Blood Loss and Transfusion Products Deck (95)
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1

The use of supportive therapies in patients to correct deficiencies until the underlying cause or disease process can be treated is that goal in what?

Transfusion or substitute treatment

2

What are 6 concerns with transfusions?

- Volume overload
- Electrolyte disturbances
- Immunogenicity
- Availability
- Cost
- Transmission of infection

3

What are 3 things to known going into a case of acute blood loss?

- PCV/TP (taken right before anesthesia)
- Anticipated losses
- Patient's total blood volume

4

Why is it important to know 20% blood loss?
Why is this number important?

- A loss of > or = 20% leads to a decrease in PCV to > or = 20%
- Oxygen carrying capacity

5

What is the minimum PCV value needed in order to carry oxygen?
what should be considered below this level?

- 21%
- Blood transfusion

6

Cotton tip applicators can hold how much blood?

0.2 mL

7

Gauze can hold about how much blood?

5-10 mL

8

Lab sponges can hold about how much blood?

50-100 mL

9

What is the best method to measure blood loss in gauze?

Weigh gauze before and after use.

10

How much blood can tubing hold?

About 120 mL

11

What are 4 examples of physiological signs that can indicate blood loss?

- Hypotension
- Tachycardia
- Baroreceptor reflex
- Pale mm, prolonged CRT

12

Blood volume is centralized during shock due to what?

Peripheral vasoconstriction

13

Injectable drugs and inhalants will have a more profound effect on patients in what state?

Shock

14

What does hemorrhage increase?

MAC

15

What does mean arterial pressure (MAP) equal?

CO x SVR

16

To restore circulating volume before signs occur is the goal of what?

A blood loss plan

17

What does cardiac output equal?

HR x SV

18

What are 3 volume replacement options?

- Crystalloid
- Colloid
- Blood products

19

What type of fluid is given with anything less than a 10% loss?

Crystalloid

20

Which has a longer shelf-life, a crystalloid or a colloid?

Colloid

21

What does BES stand for?

Balanced electrolyte solution

22

Crystalloid fluid therapy results in what?
How long does this last?

- Temporary increase in intravascular volume.
- About 15 minutes

23

What are 2 components missing from crystalloid fluid therapy?

- Proteins
- Oxygen carrying capacity

24

What are 3 effects of Hypertonic saline?

- Increase CO
- Increase ABP
- Decrease SVR

25

What are 2 fluid volumes increased by hypertonic saline?
What is the ratio?

- Plasma
- Interstitial fluid
- 2-4 mL plasma increase/1 mL hypertonic saline

26

What are 2 things improved by hypertonic saline use?

- Cardiovascular function
- Tissue perfusion

27

Are the effects of hypertonic saline short or long?

Short term

28

The use of hypertonic saline must be followed by what?

BES to avoid ICF deficit

29

What effect do large molecular weight molecules have on vascular volume?

Expands vascular volume

30

Do colloids have more or less redistribution compared to crystalloids?

Less redistribution