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Flashcards in CPR Deck (91):
1

When should a crash cart be checked to make sure the emergency medications are up to date?

At least once a month and every time after it is used.

2

What are 4 essential supplies?

- ET tube
- Laryngoscope
- IV catheter
- Fluids

3

What has to be done before CPR is begun?

Make sure that is what the client wants.

4

Is CPA hospital survival rates high or low?

Very low

5

What does DNAR stand for?

Do not attempt resuscitation

6

What does CPCR stand for?

Cardio pulmonary cerebral resuscitation

7

What is the most successful CPCR?

The one avoided

8

Can anesthesia cause CPA?

Yes

9

What are the steps to follow with basic life support?

- Chest compressions
- Airway
- Breathing
- Circulation
- Drugs
- ECG
- Fluid therapy

10

If you can only do one thing, what should be done?

Chest compressions

11

What is the goal of chest compressions?

Maximize cerebral & myocardial perfusion

12

How long are pauses between external chest compressions?

Less than 10 seconds

13

The thoracic pump theory is used in what size dogs?

Medium to large

14

What is the thoracic pump theory?

Applying rhythmic pressure to chest wall creates blood flow by increasing intrathoracic pressure on the arteries and veins to create forward blood flow.

15

What is used in cats and dogs less than 15 kg?

Cardiac pump theory

16

Forward blood movement from external chest compressions directly on the ventricles is known as what?

Cardiac pump theory

17

What type of a surface should a patient be placed on?

Firm

18

Change who is giving chest compression how often?

Every 2 minutes

19

How many compressions are given per minute?

80-100

20

How much is the chest compressed?

30%

21

Should the chest be allowed to fully recoil?

Yes

22

Should chest compressions be paused for anything?

No

23

How are hands positioned for medium to large dogs?

1 hand on top of the other parallel

24

Where are hands placed on chest for medium to large dogs?

At widest part of chest

25

How is pressure applied for medium to large dogs?

Evenly using palm of hand.

26

For patients 7-10 kg, where are hands placed?

Over apex of heart between 4-6th intercostal space (right behind elbow/axilla

27

How are hands positioned for cats and dogs less than 7 kg?

Fingers of 1 hand on one side, thumb on the other side.

28

For penetrating chest wounds, thoracic trauma with rib fracture, pleural space disease, diaphragmatic hernia, pericardial effusion hemoperitoneum, intra-op cardiac arrest and inadequate circulation after 2-5 minutes of external, what can be used?

Internal cardiac massage

29

How can an airway be established?

Place an ET tube

30

What are 4 ways to confirm placement of an ET tube?

- Visual
- chest wall excursions
- Palpation
- ETCO2

31

A vertical incision through tracheal rings is called what?

Tracheostomy

32

Are masked recommended for use in animals?

No

33

How are breaths given during respiratory arrest?

2 breaths given 1-2 seconds in duration

34

Is Doxapram recommended?
Why?

- No
- Increases oxygen requirements

35

What is the acupuncture site that might help stimulate breathing if jabbed multiple times?
Where is it located?

- Jen Chung (GV26)
- On septum just below nose

36

Full CPA may be avoided if what resumes?

Breathing

37

What rate should ventilation proceed at if breathing does not resume?

10-12 bpm

38

Airway pressures need to be maintained below what level?
In order to avoid what?

- 20 cm H2O
- Barotrauma

39

Where is an impedance threshold device placed?

Between ET tube and breathing circuit

40

What device prevents air flow in ET tube creating more negative pressure in the chest generated during chest recoil?

Impedance threshold device

41

IV access should be obtained where?

Cephalic: peripheral before jugular

42

What size catheter should be used?

Largest diameter possible

43

If unable to get IV access, can you administer directly to the heart?
What are 2 options?

- No
- IO or down ET tube

44

What needs to be done with drugs?

Reverse any drugs that may cause CV depression.

45

What is the reversal agent for opioids?

Naloxone

46

What is the reversal agent for alpha-2 agonists?

Atipamazole, Yohimbine

47

What is the reversal agent for benzodiazepenes?

Flumazenil

48

What is epinephrine?

Mixed adrenergic receptor

49

What receptors does epinephrine work on?
Which does it work strongest on?

- Alpha and beta
- Alpha

50

Stimulation of which receptor type increases myocardial contractility and heart rate?

Beta-1

51

Stimulation of which receptor type causes peripheral arteriolar vasoconstriction and increases pulmonary PP?

Alpha-2

52

What size epinephrine does should be used first?

Low

53

What kind of drug is atropine?

Anticholinergic parasympatholytic

54

Where does atropine work?

Muscarinic receptors

55

what is given if there is a suspected increase in vagal tone during arrest?

Atropine

56

What is an indication for atropine?

Vagal-induced asystole

57

What drug increases automaticity of SA node and conduction of AV node?

Atropine

58

What is a drug that increases cerebral profusion through vasodilation?

Vasopressin

59

What type of an environment does vasopressin work in?

Acidic

60

Vasopressin can be used with or instead of what?

Epinephrine

61

How does lidocaine work?

Stabilizes cell membrane by Na+ channel blockade.

62

What are 2 negative effects lidocaine can have if defibrillation is planned?

- Increases defibrillation threshold
- Decreases myocardial automaticity

63

A pulseless cardiac arrest is known as what?

Ventricular asystole

64

What is the most common arrest rhythm?

Ventricular asystole

65

There are 2 types of what heart rhythm?
What are they?

- Ventricular tachycardia
- Pulse and no pulse

66

Is VT potentially life threatening?

Yes

67

Which type of VT heart rhythm is shockable?

No pulse

68

VT has a heart rate greater than what?

150 bpm

69

Unorganized ventricular excitation is known as what?

Ventricular fibrillation

70

What are 2 things seen with ventricular fibrillation?

- Inadequate myocardial contractions
- Cardiac pump failure

71

Is ventricular fibrillation a shockable rhythm?

Yes

72

The termination of ventricular fibrillation 5 seconds or more is known as what?

Defibrillation

73

How does defibrillation work?

Electrical shock depolarizes myocardial cells.

74

What are 2 rhythms that defibrillation can be used for?

- Ventricular fibrillation
- Ventricular tachycardia with no pulse

75

Can alcohol be used with defibrillation?

No

76

What is put on the paddles for defibrillation?

Conductive paste

77

What position is the patient put in?

Dorsal recumbency

78

What is done immediately after defibrillation is given?

Immediately resume chest compressions for 2 minutes.

79

What type of dose is given if patient is hypovolemic?
What is the dose for a dog?
Cat?

- Shock dose
- Dog: 90 mL/kg
- Cat: 45 mL/kg

80

How much fluid is given if the patient is euvolemic for a dog?
Cat?

- Dog: 20 mL/kg
- Cat: 10 mL/kg

81

What is the daily maximum of Hetastarch a dog can have?
Vetstarch?

- 20 mL/kg/day
- 40 mL/kg/day

82

What is the daily maximum amount of colloid a cat can receive?

5-10 mL/kg/day

83

A fast bolus of hypertonic saline is associated with what 2 side effects?

- Vagal-induced bradycardia
- Hypotension

84

What can decreased ETCO2 be due to?

Compression fatigue during CPR

85

What can a sudden increase in ETCO2 be due to?

Probable return of spontaneous circulation during CPR.

86

What is the prognosis of ROSC if a level of greater than 20 mmHg at 20 minutes of CPR is achieved?
If less than 10 mmHg at 20 minutes of CPR?

- Increased likelihood of ROSC
- ROSC unlikely to occur

87

Does pulse palpation give an indication of arterial perfusion?

No

88

What gives an indication of perfusion?

ETCO2

89

What is the most accurate blood gas?

Central venous

90

What can be seen after resuscitation?

Permissive hypothermia

91

What can be given to increase CO without excessive vasoconstriction?

Dobutamine CRI