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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (26):
1

Which category of drug competitively antagonizes acetylcholine (vagal tone)?

Anticholinergics

2

What do anticholinergics inhibit and how do they do so?

- Bradycardia
- By decreasing vagal tone.

3

What might anticholinergics cause?

Sinus Tachycardia

4

What do anticholinergics reduce?

Glandular secretions

5

What effect do anticholinergics have on gastric pH?

Increase gastric pH

6

What effect do anticholinergics have on gastrointestinal motility?

Decrease gastrointestinal motility

7

What are two common side effects of anticholinergics?

- Bronchodilation
- Mydriasis

8

Which two anticholinergics may produce drowsiness?

- Atropine
- Scopolamine

9

Which anticholinergic does not cross the blood-brain barrier or placental barriers?

Glycopyrrolate

10

Which anticholinergic may slow the heart rate (bradycardia) temporarily after IV administration?

Atropine

11

What type of cardiac arrhythmias can atropine or glycopyrrolate cause if given IV?
What else can atropine given IV cause?

- First and second degree AV blocks before sinus tachycardia.
- Ventricular arrhythmias

12

What might atropine cause in dogs & cats?
In ruminants?

- Depression
- Restlessness

13

What might anticholinergics cause in horses?
In ruminants?

- Colic
- Bloat

14

What do phenothiazines cause?

Calming and muscle relaxation.

15

What are 3 effects phenothiazines have?

- Antiemetic
- Antiarrhythmic
- Antihistaminic

16

What do phenothiazines do to analgesics?

Potentiate analgesics

17

Where are phenothiazines metabolized?

Liver

18

What is the normal DOA for phenothiazines?
Effects can be seen for up to how long?

- 4 to 8 hours
- Up to 48 hours

19

Can phenothiazines cause hypertension or hypotension?

Hypotension

20

Can phenothiazines cause hyperthermia or hypothermia?

Hypothermia

21

What do phenothiazines inhibit?

Platelet aggregation

22

T/F: Phenothiazines are analgesic.

False - They are not analgesic.

23

What is the concern with using phenothiazines in an epileptic patient?

They may lower seizure threshold in animals with epilepsy.

24

What are 2 side effects seen with excessive doses of phenothiazines or butyrophenones?
Which species is particularly susceptible?

- Apparent involuntary musculoskeletal effects and hallucinatory activity.
- Horses

25

What side effect with phenothiazines can be seen in Boxers?

Occasional bradycardia

26

What effect do intrahepatic or extrahepatic shunts have on phenothiazines?

Increased duration of action.