Flashcards in Local Anesthetic Agents Deck (74)
The reversible block of the generation and propagation of the action potential in neural tissue is known as what?
Transient loss of what 3 functions can be seen with local anesthetics?
Local anesthetics target what?
Axons of A and C fibers (sensory nerves)
Which are more prone to hydrolysis, amide or ester links?
Which have a shorter duration of action, anesthetics with amide or ester links?
What are 4 examples of local anesthetics with esters?
What are 6 examples of local anesthetics with amides?
Where do local anesthetics act?
Site of injection.
Slow absorption into systemic circulation is usually desired with what?
What are 3 factors increasing systemic absorption?
- High dosage
- Increased blood flow at site of injection
Which remains at the receptor site longer, the cationic or non-charged form?
Which is able to rapidly penetrate membranes, the cationic or non-charged form?
What effect does pka have on onset?
- High pka has slow onset.
- Low pka has fast onset
Which has a faster onset, procaine or lidocaine?
Which has a faster onset, lidocaine or mepivacaine?
Which local anesthetic has the slowest onset?
Which has a faster onset, mepivacaine or bupivacaine?
An infection can have what effect on the internal environment?
Make it acidic.
Increased protein binding has what effect on duration of action?
Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, procaine or lidocaine?
Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, lidocaine or mepivacaine?
Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, mepivacaine or bupivacaine?
How is lipid solubility related to potency?
What effect does lipid solubility have on onset and duration?
Slower onset and longer duration
How does perfusion affect systemic absorption?
Highly perfused area leads to faster systemic absorption.
What are 2 examples of highly perfused areas?
- Mucus membranes
- Intercostal muscles
What are 3 examples of poorly perfused areas?
What are 2 examples of vasoconstrictors?
What can lead to reduced blood perfusion?
By how much?