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Flashcards in Local Anesthetic Agents Deck (74)
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1

The reversible block of the generation and propagation of the action potential in neural tissue is known as what?

Local anesthetic

2

Transient loss of what 3 functions can be seen with local anesthetics?

- Sensory
- Motor
- Autonomic

3

Local anesthetics target what?

Axons of A and C fibers (sensory nerves)

4

Which are more prone to hydrolysis, amide or ester links?

Ester

5

Which have a shorter duration of action, anesthetics with amide or ester links?

Ester

6

What are 4 examples of local anesthetics with esters?

- Cocaine
- Procaine
- Tetracaine
- Benzocaine

7

What are 6 examples of local anesthetics with amides?

- Lidocaine
- Prilocaine
- Mepivacaine
- Bupivacaine
- Ropivacaine
- Levo-bupivacaine

8

Where do local anesthetics act?

Site of injection.

9

Slow absorption into systemic circulation is usually desired with what?

Local anesthetics

10

What are 3 factors increasing systemic absorption?

- High dosage
- Increased blood flow at site of injection
- Vasodilation

11

Which remains at the receptor site longer, the cationic or non-charged form?

Cationic

12

Which is able to rapidly penetrate membranes, the cationic or non-charged form?

Non-charged

13

What effect does pka have on onset?

- High pka has slow onset.
- Low pka has fast onset

14

Which has a faster onset, procaine or lidocaine?

Lidocaine

15

Which has a faster onset, lidocaine or mepivacaine?

Mepivacaine

16

Which local anesthetic has the slowest onset?

Procaine

17

Which has a faster onset, mepivacaine or bupivacaine?

Mepivacaine

18

An infection can have what effect on the internal environment?

Make it acidic.

19

Increased protein binding has what effect on duration of action?

Increased duration

20

Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, procaine or lidocaine?

Lidocaine

21

Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, lidocaine or mepivacaine?

Mepivacaine

22

Which has a higher percentage of protein binding, mepivacaine or bupivacaine?

Bupivacaine

23

How is lipid solubility related to potency?

Positively

24

What effect does lipid solubility have on onset and duration?

Slower onset and longer duration

25

How does perfusion affect systemic absorption?

Highly perfused area leads to faster systemic absorption.

26

What are 2 examples of highly perfused areas?

- Mucus membranes
- Intercostal muscles

27

What are 3 examples of poorly perfused areas?

- Tendons
- Dermis
- Fat

28

What are 2 examples of vasoconstrictors?

- Epinephrine
- Phenylephrine

29

What can lead to reduced blood perfusion?
By how much?

- Vasoconstrictors
- 30%

30

T/F: Vasoconstrictors enhance the concentration of available drug in the premises of neuronal tissue.

True