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Which of the following could be a cause for the capnogram shown below?

 A) A closed APL valve
 B) Expired sodasorb
 C) Decreased cardiac output
 D) Hypoventilation

B) Expired sodasorb 


Which method of blood pressure measurement is considered the most accurate (“the gold standard”)?

 A) Direct arterial blood pressure
 B) Ultrasonic Doppler method
 C) Oscillometric method
 D) PetMAP blood pressure measurement device

A) Direct arterial blood pressure 


The clinical uses for electrocardiography include which of the following?

 A) Determine the heart rate and rhythm.
 B) Record electrical activity of the heart.
 C) Determine cardiac oxygenation status.
 D) Determine electrolyte abnormalities.
 E) All of the above.

E) All of the above. 


Hypotension in small animal species is defined as a SAP < ________ mmHg and a MAP < ____________ mmHg.

A) 100; 60
B) 90; 50
C) 80; 60
D) 75; 70

C) 80; 60


Which of the following is the gold standard for measuring oxygenation and ventilation status in an anesthetized patient?

 A) Arterial blood gas analysis
 B) Venous blood gas analysis
 C) Capnography
 D) Pulse oximetry
 E) Capnography and pulse oximetery

A) Arterial blood gas analysis 


Which of the following does NOT indicate a light plane of anesthesia?

A) Brisk palpebral reflex
B) Nystagmus
C) Lacrimation
D) Hypoactive corneal reflex

D) Hypoactive corneal reflex 


Which of the following SpO2 readings correlates best with a PaO2 of 60 mmHg?

A) 60%
B) 85%
C) 90%
D) 95%

C) 90%


What can the esophageal stethoscope be used to determine?

A) Heart rate
B) Oxygenation status
C) Electrical activity of the heart
D) Respiratory rate
E) A and D

E) A and D


Which of the following species is NOT correctly matched to their normal range of heart rate (in beats per minute)?

A) Dog: 70 to 100
B) Cat: 80 to 120
C) Horse: 30 to 45
D) Sheep: 60 to 90

B) Cat: 80 to 120


How often should you record your vital signs (HR, RR, BP) during anesthesia?

A) Every minute
B) Every 5 minutes
C) Every 15 minute
D) Only once at the beginning and end of anesthesia

B) Every 5 minutes 


Which of the following is NOT a benefit to giving a patient preanesthetic medication?

A) INCREASE amount of inhalant required
B) sedation to facilitate IV catheter placement
C) pre-emptive analgesia
D) DECREASE amount of induction agent required
E) anxiolysis

A) INCREASE amount of inhalant required 


Which of the following drug categories are MOST COMMONLY included in a neuroleptanalgesia preanesthetic medication?

A) anticholinergic + sedative
B) sedative + opioid
C) anticholinergic + opioid
D) dissociative anesthetic + anticholinergic
E) neurosteroid + sedative

B) sedative + opioid