Flashcards in Ruminant and Camelid Deck (64):
What are 2 techniques can be used for simple diagnostics and some surgical procedures?
- Restrain ruminants
- Local anesthesia
More complex procedures will require what?
The same equipment and some of the drugs are used as in what other species?
What are 7 examples of standing procedures?
- Displaced abomasum
- Wound repair
- Teat surgery
What can be limited if the patient is uncooperative?
What minimum blood work should be done?
What should be included with a neonate?
What may be needed before placing IV catheter?
What should be gathered ahead of time?
Any special equipment, personnel.
What might be needed for ruminants to help prevent myopathy or neuropathy?
How much saliva does an average adult produce per day?
What are 4 possible complications seen with ruminants?
- Regurgitation: aspiration pneumonia
What can lead to decreased venous return and hypoventilation?
What type of recumbency will worsen the ability to ventilate?
Do you inflate the cuff before or after induction?
The head should be positioned to promote what?
Drainage during anesthesia
How should the head be positioned during sedation and recovery?
Head elevated with nose pointed down.
What are 2 things that should always be taken into account?
- Safety of animal
- Personnel working around nearby
You should have enough what available to situate patient on surgery table?
What is the recommended fasting time in adult large ruminants?
- 12-18 hours
- 8-12 hours
What is the recommended fasting time for sheep and goats?
- 12-18 hours
- 4 hours
What is the recommended fasting time for calves, lambs and kids?
Generally not required if 1 month.
The GI tract of ruminants functions as a simple stomach under what age?
Less than 3 months of age.
What helps reserve functional residual capacity since ruminants have a decreased tidal volume compared to horses?
What can fasting produce in cattle?
What can be caused by fasting?
Mild metabolic alkalosis
Even with precautions, what percentage of adult cattle may still regurgitate under anesthesia?
Where is the IV catheter usually place?
Jugular vein accessed most easily during surgery.
Do ruminants have thin skin or tough skin?
What gauge catheter is used in adult cattle?
In sheep, goats, calves?
- 12-14 gauge
- 16-18 gauge
Do you always need to give a premedication to ruminants?
Remember to keep the head and neck elevated and patient sternal recumbency after what is given?
Is Acepromazine approved for use in food animals? by the FDA?
Why might acepromazine be avoided?
Prolonged effects & elimination time
Acepromazine might increase the risk of what?
What dose range of acepromazine can be used?
0.03-0.05 mg/kg IV (can use up to 0.1 mg/kg IM)
What vein should acepromazine not be injected into?
- Coccygeal vein
- May hit artery and slough off tail
Acepromazine is contraindicated in what 2 types of patients?
- Debilitated patients
Is xylazine approved for use in food animals by the FDA?
Is xylazine more potent in ruminants or horses?
Which species of ruminant is most sensitive to xylazine?
What are 2 breeds of cattle that are more sensitive to xylzine compared to other breeds?
What can cause a prolonged response to xylazine in cattle?
Which drug can cause bradycardia, rumen atony and bloat, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hypoxemia, hypercarbia and increased urine production?
Which species is at risk for developing pulmonary hemorrhage and edema with xylazine?
What category of drugs is not recommended for use in sheep due to the risk of hypoxemia?
Alpha 2 agonists
What drug can cause premature delivery during late pregnancy due to its oxytocin-like effect on the uterus of pregnant cattle and sheep?
Which drug does not seem to have this effect?
What dose range of xylazine provides sedation without recumbency in ruminants?
0.015-0.025 mg/kg IV or IM
What dose of xylazine is used to induce recumbency in goats?
- Goats: 0.05 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg IM
- Cattle: 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.2 mg/kg IM
What are 4 factors that need to be considered when approaching a case?
- Production vs. pet
- Field anesthesia vs in-hospital anesthesia
- Standing surgery vs general anesthesia
What are 4 reversals for Alpha 2 agonists?
- Doxapram (somewhat effective)
What category of drug is not typically used in ruminants?
- Salivary secretions become more viscous, decreases GI motility which can lead to bloat.
Which drug category has no analgesic effects and minimal sedation in ruminants?
What are benzodiazepines typically combined with for induction?
What are 2 examples of benzodiazepines used in ruminants?
What are 2 things opioids might cause in ruminants?
What are 2 opioids not typically used in cattle?
What are 2 opioids that can be used in ruminants?
What are 3 examples of induction drugs that can be used in ruminants?
What is another category of drug ketamine can be combined with?
What is ketamine combined with to make "double dip"?
What percentage is used?
- 5%: hemolysis can occur with solutions >7%
Which induction drug has smooth induction and recovery with ruminants?
Apnea may occur with rapid administration of which induction drug?
Propofol can be used as what for a light plane of anesthesia?