Ruminant and Camelid Flashcards Preview

Anesthesiology > Ruminant and Camelid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ruminant and Camelid Deck (64):
1

What are 2 techniques can be used for simple diagnostics and some surgical procedures?

- Restrain ruminants
- Local anesthesia

2

More complex procedures will require what?

General anesthesia

3

The same equipment and some of the drugs are used as in what other species?

Equine

4

What are 7 examples of standing procedures?

- Castration
- Displaced abomasum
- C-section
- Wound repair
- Teat surgery
- Enucleation
- Dehorning

5

What can be limited if the patient is uncooperative?

Physical exam

6

What minimum blood work should be done?
What should be included with a neonate?

- PCV/TS
- Glucose

7

What may be needed before placing IV catheter?

Sedation

8

What should be gathered ahead of time?

Any special equipment, personnel.

9

What might be needed for ruminants to help prevent myopathy or neuropathy?

Padding

10

How much saliva does an average adult produce per day?

50 L/day

11

What are 4 possible complications seen with ruminants?

- Hypersalivation
- Bloat
- Hypoventilation
- Regurgitation: aspiration pneumonia

12

What can lead to decreased venous return and hypoventilation?

Bloat

13

What type of recumbency will worsen the ability to ventilate?

Dorsal recumbency

14

Do you inflate the cuff before or after induction?

After induction

15

The head should be positioned to promote what?

Drainage during anesthesia

16

How should the head be positioned during sedation and recovery?

Head elevated with nose pointed down.

17

What are 2 things that should always be taken into account?

- Safety of animal
- Personnel working around nearby

18

You should have enough what available to situate patient on surgery table?

Experienced personnel

19

What is the recommended fasting time in adult large ruminants?
Water?

- 12-18 hours
- 8-12 hours

20

What is the recommended fasting time for sheep and goats?
water?

- 12-18 hours
- 4 hours

21

What is the recommended fasting time for calves, lambs and kids?

Generally not required if 1 month.

22

The GI tract of ruminants functions as a simple stomach under what age?

Less than 3 months of age.

23

What helps reserve functional residual capacity since ruminants have a decreased tidal volume compared to horses?

Fasting

24

What can fasting produce in cattle?

Bradycardia

25

What can be caused by fasting?

Mild metabolic alkalosis

26

Even with precautions, what percentage of adult cattle may still regurgitate under anesthesia?

25%

27

Where is the IV catheter usually place?

Jugular vein accessed most easily during surgery.

28

Do ruminants have thin skin or tough skin?

Tough skin

29

What gauge catheter is used in adult cattle?
In sheep, goats, calves?

- 12-14 gauge
- 16-18 gauge

30

Do you always need to give a premedication to ruminants?

No

31

Remember to keep the head and neck elevated and patient sternal recumbency after what is given?

Premedication

32

Is Acepromazine approved for use in food animals? by the FDA?

No

33

Why might acepromazine be avoided?

Prolonged effects & elimination time

34

Acepromazine might increase the risk of what?

Regurgitation

35

What dose range of acepromazine can be used?

0.03-0.05 mg/kg IV (can use up to 0.1 mg/kg IM)

36

What vein should acepromazine not be injected into?
Why?

- Coccygeal vein
- May hit artery and slough off tail

37

Acepromazine is contraindicated in what 2 types of patients?

- Hypovolemic
- Debilitated patients

38

Is xylazine approved for use in food animals by the FDA?

No

39

Is xylazine more potent in ruminants or horses?

Ruminants

40

Which species of ruminant is most sensitive to xylazine?

Goats

41

What are 2 breeds of cattle that are more sensitive to xylzine compared to other breeds?

- Herefords
- Brahmans

42

What can cause a prolonged response to xylazine in cattle?

Stressful environment

43

Which drug can cause bradycardia, rumen atony and bloat, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hypoxemia, hypercarbia and increased urine production?

Xylazine

44

Which species is at risk for developing pulmonary hemorrhage and edema with xylazine?

Sheep

45

What category of drugs is not recommended for use in sheep due to the risk of hypoxemia?

Alpha 2 agonists

46

What drug can cause premature delivery during late pregnancy due to its oxytocin-like effect on the uterus of pregnant cattle and sheep?
Which drug does not seem to have this effect?

- Xylazine
- Detomidine

47

What dose range of xylazine provides sedation without recumbency in ruminants?

0.015-0.025 mg/kg IV or IM

48

What dose of xylazine is used to induce recumbency in goats?
In cattle?

- Goats: 0.05 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg IM
- Cattle: 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.2 mg/kg IM

49

What are 4 factors that need to be considered when approaching a case?

- Production vs. pet
- Cost
- Field anesthesia vs in-hospital anesthesia
- Standing surgery vs general anesthesia

50

What are 4 reversals for Alpha 2 agonists?

- Atipamezole
- Yohimbine
- Tolazoline
- Doxapram (somewhat effective)

51

What category of drug is not typically used in ruminants?
Why?

- Anticholinergics
- Salivary secretions become more viscous, decreases GI motility which can lead to bloat.

52

Which drug category has no analgesic effects and minimal sedation in ruminants?

Benzodiazepines

53

What are benzodiazepines typically combined with for induction?

Ketamine

54

What are 2 examples of benzodiazepines used in ruminants?

- Midazolam
- Diazepam

55

What are 2 things opioids might cause in ruminants?

- Excitement
- Vocalization

56

What are 2 opioids not typically used in cattle?

- Morphine
- Buprenorphine

57

What are 2 opioids that can be used in ruminants?

- Hydromorphone
- Butorphanol

58

What are 3 examples of induction drugs that can be used in ruminants?

- Telazol
- Ketamine
- Propofol

59

What is another category of drug ketamine can be combined with?

Benzodiazepine

60

What is ketamine combined with to make "double dip"?
What percentage is used?

- GG
- 5%: hemolysis can occur with solutions >7%

61

Which induction drug has smooth induction and recovery with ruminants?

Propofol

62

Apnea may occur with rapid administration of which induction drug?

Propofol

63

Propofol can be used as what for a light plane of anesthesia?

CRI

64

What can propofol be combined with in small ruminants?

Ketamine