Flashcards in Causes of Infertility Deck (78)
What is infertility?
The inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving a male and female partner
80% of couples will conceive in year if what criteria are met?
- woman is under 40
- Don't use contraception
- Have regular intercourse (every 2-3 days)
What is the cumulative pregnancy rate over 2 years with the same criteria?
What happens with natural female fertility over time?
Declines with age
What are the 2 types of infertility?
What is primary infertility?
When someone who has never had a child has difficulty conceiving
What is secondary infertility?
When someone who has had 1 or more pregnancies has difficulty conceiving
What are the broad causes of infertility?
- Ovulation disorders
- Tubal disease
- Uterine or cervical causes
- Coital dysfunction
- Male factor
- Unexplained infertility
What % of infertility cases are due to ovarian disorders?
How many groups of ovulation disorders are there?
What are the 4 groups of ovulation disorders?
- Type I
- Type II
- Type III
- Type IV
What are Type I ovulation disorders also known as?
Where are LH and FSH produced?
Anterior pituitary gland
What are FSH and LH responsible for?
Stimulating ovulation each month
What happens to LH, FSH and oestradiol in type I ovulation disorders?
What can cause type I ovulation disorders
- Excess weight gain
- Very high or very low body weight
- Recent substantial weight gain
What can happen to menses as a result of type I ovulation disorders?
Absent or very infrequent
What is type II ovulation disorder also known as?
What is the most common cause of type II ovulation disorders (and the majority of ovulation disorders)?
What happens to levels of FSH in Type II ovulation disorders?
What happens to levels of LH in Type II ovulation disorders?
Normal or raised
What other hormones can be raised in Type II ovulation disorders?
- Serum anti-mullerian hormone
- Serum tesosterone
- Free androgen index
What are Type III ovulation disorders also known as?
Premature ovarian failure
What is premature ovarian failure?
Cessation of ovulation due to depletion of the ovarian follicle pool before 40
What happens to serum gonadotrophin levels in premature ovarian failure?
What happens to levels of AMH in premature ovarian failure?
What happens to levels of Oestradiol in premature ovarian failure?
What can cause premature ovarian failure?
- Autoimmune conditions
What are Type IV ovarian disorders also known as?