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Flashcards in Causes of Infertility Deck (78)
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1

What is infertility?

The inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving a male and female partner

2

80% of couples will conceive in year if what criteria are met?

- woman is under 40
- Don't use contraception
- Have regular intercourse (every 2-3 days)

3

What is the cumulative pregnancy rate over 2 years with the same criteria?

90%

4

What happens with natural female fertility over time?

Declines with age

5

What are the 2 types of infertility?

- Primary
- Secondary

6

What is primary infertility?

When someone who has never had a child has difficulty conceiving

7

What is secondary infertility?

When someone who has had 1 or more pregnancies has difficulty conceiving

8

What are the broad causes of infertility?

- Ovulation disorders
- Tubal disease
- Uterine or cervical causes
- Coital dysfunction
- Male factor
- Unexplained infertility

9

What % of infertility cases are due to ovarian disorders?

25%

10

How many groups of ovulation disorders are there?

4

11

What are the 4 groups of ovulation disorders?

- Type I
- Type II
- Type III
- Type IV

12

What are Type I ovulation disorders also known as?

Hypothalamic-pituitary failure

13

Where are LH and FSH produced?

Anterior pituitary gland

14

What are FSH and LH responsible for?

Stimulating ovulation each month

15

What happens to LH, FSH and oestradiol in type I ovulation disorders?

Lowered

16

What can cause type I ovulation disorders

- Excess weight gain
- Very high or very low body weight
- Recent substantial weight gain

17

What can happen to menses as a result of type I ovulation disorders?

Absent or very infrequent

18

What is type II ovulation disorder also known as?

Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian dysfunction

19

What is the most common cause of type II ovulation disorders (and the majority of ovulation disorders)?

PCOS

20

What happens to levels of FSH in Type II ovulation disorders?

Normal

21

What happens to levels of LH in Type II ovulation disorders?

Normal or raised

22

What other hormones can be raised in Type II ovulation disorders?

- Serum anti-mullerian hormone
- Serum tesosterone
- Free androgen index

23

What are Type III ovulation disorders also known as?

Premature ovarian failure

24

What is premature ovarian failure?

Cessation of ovulation due to depletion of the ovarian follicle pool before 40

25

What happens to serum gonadotrophin levels in premature ovarian failure?

Greatly raised

26

What happens to levels of AMH in premature ovarian failure?

Low/undetectable

27

What happens to levels of Oestradiol in premature ovarian failure?

Low

28

What can cause premature ovarian failure?

- Autoimmune conditions
- Genetics
- Chemotherapy

29

What are Type IV ovarian disorders also known as?

Hyperprolactinaemia

30

What happens in Type IV ovarian disorders?

Pituitary gland produces too much prolactin leading to low oestrogen and may cause infertility