Flashcards in Genital Herpes Deck (44)
What is genital herpes?
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus
How is genital herpes transmitted?
By skin-to-skin contact through vagina, anal or oral sex
How long can genital herpes infection take to show?
Once infected people may be asymptomatic for a long period before the first flare up
What happens to the virus after resolution of primary genital herpes infection?
Can lie dormant until it returns in later life causing recurrent outbreaks
How many cases of genital herpes are there each year in England?
What % of newly diagnosed STI's are genital herpes?
What is happening to the rate of genital herpes infections?
What % of genital herpes occurs in people aged 15-24?
Why are diagnostic rates and prevalence of genital herpes thought to be underestimated?
Many people don't know they are infected
What are the 2 main types of herpes simplex virus?
HSV-1 and HSV-2
What can be caused by HSV-1?
- Cold sores
- Genital sores
What can be caused by HSV-2?
What is the consequence of HSV-1 and 2 causing oral and genital herpes?
It can be spread via oral sex with a cold sore sufferer
How does HSV enter the body?
Via small cracks in the skin or through mucous membranes of the mouth, vagina, rectum, urethra or under the foreskin
Where does HSV travel after infecting the surface?
The nearest nerve ganglion and remains there
What does travelling to the nerve ganglion allow HSV to do?
Remain dormant for a long time
Why does remaining in the nerve ganglion allow the HSV to remain dormant?
It cannot be reached by the immune system
How does the HSV become reactivated?
It travels back down the nerve onto the surface of the genitals to cause a symptomatic outbreak
Can HSV be spread when asymptomatic?
How can HSV be spread when asymptomatic?
Through asymptomatic shedding
What are the risk factors for genital herpes?
- Multiple sexual partners
- Previous history of STIs
- Early age of first sexual intercourse
- Unprotected sexual encounters
- MSM (and female partners of MSM)
- Female gender
- HIV infection
What are the symptoms of primary genital herpes infection?
- Small, red, painful blisters around genitals
- Vaginal or penile discharge
- Flu-like symptoms, fever and myalgia
- Itchy genitals
What can happen to primary genital herpes blisters?
Can form open sores
Where do genital herpes sores present in men?
Where do genital herpes sores present in women?
How long does it take for primary genital herpes lesions to crust and heal?
How do secondary genital herpes infections differ from primary infection?
Often shorter and less severe and increasingly so with each infection
Why are secondary genital herpes outbreaks shorter and less severe?
Production of antibodies allows for a more effective response
What are the symptoms of recurrent outbreaks of genital herpes?
- Burning and itching
- Painful red blisters