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Flashcards in Menopause Deck (85)
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1

What is the menopause?

The end of the female reproductive life

2

What is the average age of menopause in the UK?

51

3

What is the perimenopause also known as?

The climacteric

4

What is the perimenopause?

The transition period before the menopause, from the reproductive stage of life to the post-menopausal years

5

At what age can signs and effects of the perimenopause begin?

Can be as early as 35, but most women don't become aware of them until about 10 years later

6

How can the duration and severity of perimenopause in an individual woman be predicted?

It can't

7

What are the symptoms of perimenopause?

- Weight gain
- Menstrual irregularities
- Reduced fertility

8

Where in particular is there weight gain in perimenopause?

- Lower abdomen
- Buttocks
- Thighs

9

What % of women stop menstruating abruptly in the menopause?

10%

10

What happens to menstruation in the vast majority of women in the menopause?

They experience 4-5 years of varying cycle length due to progressive ovarian failure

11

What hormonal changes is the perimenopause initially characterised by?

Elevation of FSH and decreased inhibit levels, but normal levels of estradiol-17ß and LH

12

Are the hormonal changes in the perimenopause the same in every woman?

No, there is wide individual variation

13

What is the menopause defined as?

Cessation of menstrual cycles, where no more follicles develop

14

What is the result of the absence of follicular development in the menopause?

The ovary produces almost no oestrogen

15

What is the bodies primary source of oestrogen after the menopause?

Peripheral conversion of androgens

16

What is the importance of the lack of oestrogen following the menopause?

It is the lack of oestrogen that produces most of the symptoms of menopause

17

What other hormonal changes are there during the menopause?

- 10-20x increase in FSH
- 3x increase in LH
- Increased androgens

18

When does the increase in LH caused by menopause peak?

1-3 years after menopause

19

Why is there increased androgens in the menopause

Because elevated gonadotrophin (LH and FSH) drive the ovarian stroma to produce androgens

20

How can the menopause be 'induced'?

- Surgical removal of ovaries
- Iatrogenic ablation of ovarian function by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or treatment with GnRH analogues

21

How much does the experience of the menopause vary between women?

Widely. with some being debilitated and others unaffected by their symptoms

22

What % of women going through the menopause experience symptoms?

Around 80%

23

What proportion of women going through the menopause have severe symptoms?

1/4

24

What are the categories of symptoms of menopause?

- Systemic
- Psychological
- Breast
- Skin
- Joint
- Menstrual
- Vaginal
- Other

25

What are the systemic symptoms of menopause?

- Weight gain
- Heavy night sweats

26

What are the psychological symptoms of menopause?

- Dizziness
- Sleep disturbance
- Anxiety
- Poor memory
- Inability to concentrate
- Depressive mood
- Irritability
- Mood swings
- Less interest in sexual activity

27

What are the breast symptoms of menopause?

- Enlargement
- Pain

28

What are the skin symptoms of menopause?

- Hot flushes
- Dryness
- Itching
- Thinning
- Tingling

29

What are the joint symptoms of menopause?

- Soreness
- Stiffness

30

What are the menstrual symptoms of menopause?

- Shorter or longer between cycles
- Bleeding between periods