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Flashcards in Genital Warts Deck (82)
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1

What are genital warts?

Benign epithelial growths or mucosal outgrowths

2

What causes genital warts?

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

3

What sort of virus is HPV?

DNA virus

4

How common are genital warts?

The most commonly diagnosed STI in the UK

5

What has affected the prevalence of genital warts?

Widespread vaccination for HPV

6

When was vaccination for HPV started?

2008

7

What was the prevalence of genital warts in 14-24 year olds undergoing chlamydia screening prior to 2008?

35%

8

What is expected to happen to the prevalence of genital warts?

Fall

9

How many types of HPV are there?

>100

10

What varies with the type of HPV?

Type of warts

11

What number of HPV types have been associated with anogenital warts?

>40

12

What is another name for anogenital warts?

Condyloma acuminatum

13

What are the most important types of HPV?

- HPV 6
- HPV 11

14

What % of anogenital warts are caused by HPV 6 and 11?

~90%

15

How are infections of HPV causing genital warts spread?

Skin-to-skin contact in sex

16

What types of sex can cause genital wart transmission?

- Vaginal
- Anal
- Non-penetrative

17

Do condoms stop the spread of genital warts?

Not 100%

18

Why don't condoms fully prevent genital warts spreading?

They do not cover all areas of skin e.g. inner thighs

19

How can genital warts be spread more rarely?

- Hand to genitals
- Oral sex
- To neonate during delivery

20

How does the HPV virus infect the host?

Penetrates the epithelial barrier and infects basal keratinocytes

21

What happens once HPV infects basal keratinocytes?

Replicates causing keratinocyte multiplication and rapid growth manifesting as lesions

22

Why is the main concern with HPV infection?

Some types are high-risk oncogenic

23

What can high-risk oncogenic types of HPV lead to?

Precancerous lesions

24

What can persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV types lead to?

Cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina and anus (and penis)

25

What cancer is HPV most commonly associated with?

Cervical cancer

26

What types of HPV are most commonly associated with cervical cancer?

- HPV 16
- HPV 18

27

What % of cases of cervical cancer are associated with HPV 16/18 infection?

70%

28

How are most cases of HPV 16/18 infection detected?

Abnormal cervical screening result

29

Are HPV 6 and 11 associated with cancer?

No

30

What are the risk factors for genital warts?

- Early age at first sexual experience
- Multiple partners
- Immunosuppression
- Smoking
- Diabetes associated with persistence of warts