Flashcards in Syphilis Deck (77)
What is syphilis?
An STI caused by Treponema pallidum
What type of organism is Treponema pallidum?
Spiochete gram-negative bacteria
How many cases of syphilis were diagnosed in the UK in 2015?
What is happening to the incidence of syphilis?
What groups is incidence of syphilis markedly increasing in?
High risk groups e.g. MSM
What other conditions can be caused by other types of Treponemes?
What is Bejel?
A chronic skin and tissues disease
What is Yaws?
A disease of the bones and joints
What is Pinta?
A skin disease
How are other Treponeme diseases spread?
Any close contact but not mother to foetus
What does the increasing rates of syphilis in MSM suggest?
They still have high rates of condomless sex
How can syphilis be transmitted?
- Sexual transmission
- Mother to foetus via placenta
- Infected blood products
What is it called if a foetus gets syphilis across the placenta?
How does Treponema pallidum enter the host?
Through breaks in the skin or intact mucous membranes
What forms at the site of contact in syphilis after an incubation period of 2-3 weeks?
Infectious hard ulcer (chancre)
What is the chancre in syphilis an indicator of?
The first stage of acquired symptomatic syphilis - Primary syphilis
What can happen if syphilis is left untreated?
T. pallidum can persist and cause systemic damage via obliterating arteritis
What is obliterating arteritis?
Where the endothelial cells of the vessels excessively proliferate causing lumen of the vessels to narrow
What can occur as a result of obliterating arteritis?
Ischaemia at the tissues supplied by the arteries which leads to symptoms associated with syphilis
What are the risk factors for syphilis?
- Unprotected sex
- Multiple partners
- HIV infection
What are the two types of syphilis?
What are the forms of acquired syphilis?
- Asymptomatic (latent)
What are the stages of symptomatic syphilis?
What forms the basis of primary syphilis?
How does the chancre form in primary syphilis?
A papule forms at the inoculation site which will ulcerate into a chancre
What is a chancre?
A painless ulcer that is usually singular, hard and non-itchy
When does a chancre develop after inoculation with syphilis?
9-90 days post infection
Where does the syphilis chancre present?
What is an atypical syphilis chancre?
- One that appears on unusual sites e.g. oral