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Flashcards in Syphilis Deck (77)
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1

What is syphilis?

An STI caused by Treponema pallidum

2

What type of organism is Treponema pallidum?

Spiochete gram-negative bacteria

3

How many cases of syphilis were diagnosed in the UK in 2015?

5,000

4

What is happening to the incidence of syphilis?

Increasing

5

What groups is incidence of syphilis markedly increasing in?

High risk groups e.g. MSM

6

What other conditions can be caused by other types of Treponemes?

- Bejel
- Yaws
- Pinta

7

What is Bejel?

A chronic skin and tissues disease

8

What is Yaws?

A disease of the bones and joints

9

What is Pinta?

A skin disease

10

How are other Treponeme diseases spread?

Any close contact but not mother to foetus

11

What does the increasing rates of syphilis in MSM suggest?

They still have high rates of condomless sex

12

How can syphilis be transmitted?

- Sexual transmission
- Mother to foetus via placenta
- Infected blood products

13

What is it called if a foetus gets syphilis across the placenta?

Congenital syphilis

14

How does Treponema pallidum enter the host?

Through breaks in the skin or intact mucous membranes

15

What forms at the site of contact in syphilis after an incubation period of 2-3 weeks?

Infectious hard ulcer (chancre)

16

What is the chancre in syphilis an indicator of?

The first stage of acquired symptomatic syphilis - Primary syphilis

17

What can happen if syphilis is left untreated?

T. pallidum can persist and cause systemic damage via obliterating arteritis

18

What is obliterating arteritis?

Where the endothelial cells of the vessels excessively proliferate causing lumen of the vessels to narrow

19

What can occur as a result of obliterating arteritis?

Ischaemia at the tissues supplied by the arteries which leads to symptoms associated with syphilis

20

What are the risk factors for syphilis?

- Unprotected sex
- Multiple partners
- MSM
- HIV infection

21

What are the two types of syphilis?

- Acquired
- Congenital

22

What are the forms of acquired syphilis?

- Asymptomatic (latent)
- Symptomatic

23

What are the stages of symptomatic syphilis?

- Primary
- Secondary
- Tertiary

24

What forms the basis of primary syphilis?

Chancre formation

25

How does the chancre form in primary syphilis?

A papule forms at the inoculation site which will ulcerate into a chancre

26

What is a chancre?

A painless ulcer that is usually singular, hard and non-itchy

27

When does a chancre develop after inoculation with syphilis?

9-90 days post infection

28

Where does the syphilis chancre present?

- Penis
- Scrotum
- Anus
- Rectum
- Labia
- Cervix

29

What is an atypical syphilis chancre?

- One that appears on unusual sites e.g. oral
- Multiple
- Painful

30

When do syphilis chancres typically heal?

Within 3-10 weeks with or without symptoms but can persist into secondary syphilis