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Flashcards in HIV/AIDS Deck (90)
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1

What is HIV?

A single stranded RNA retrovirus

2

How dos HIV infect humans?

Infects and replicates within the human immune system using host CD4 cells

3

What can HIV lead to without treatment?

Destruction of the immune system and AIDS

4

What was the prevalence of HIV in the UK in 2015?

~101,000

5

What % of the population of the UK had HIV in 2015?

0.16%

6

What % of people infected with HIV were unaware of their status?

13%

7

What % of people with HIV were men?

69%

8

What proportion of people with HIV are MSM?

Just under half

9

What cells does HIV replicate within?

CD4

10

What are CD4 cells also known as?

T helper cells

11

How does HIV infect a host CD4 cell?

Penetrates cell and empties the contents. The viral RNA is converted to DNA and combines with the host DNA

12

What enzyme causes HIV RNA to become DNA?

Reverse transcriptase

13

What enzyme integrates viral DNA into the host DNA in HIV?

Integrase

14

What happens when the CD4 cell divides in HIV?

Viral DNA is read and viral protein chains are created and push out of the cell retaining some cell membrane to form an immature virus

15

How does the immature HIV virus develop?

Viral protein chains are cut and assemble to create a working virus

16

What enzyme cuts the viral proteins in an immature HIV virus?

Protease

17

What happens to the host CD4 cell when HIV replicates?

It is destroyed

18

What is seroconversion in HIV?

The process pf producing anti-HIV antibodies during primary infection

19

What happens to the levels of CD4 cells during seroconversion?

Fall due to initial rapid replication of HIV

20

How dos HIV infect humans?

Infects and replicates within the human immune system using host CD4 cells

21

What can HIV lead to without treatment?

Destruction of the immune system and AIDS

22

How can the clinical features of HIV be divided?

Into stages of infection

23

What symptoms can be experienced during HIV seroconversion?

Flu-like symptoms

24

What happens to the levels of CD4 cells during seroconversion?

Fall due to initial rapid replication of HIV

25

How infectious is the patient during seroconversion?

Highly infectious

26

What can happen to HIV over the months-years following seroconversion?

Can enter a latent phase

27

What symptoms do many patients with HIV display after seroconversion?

None

28

What happens to CD4 levels after seroconversion?

Continue to fall

29

What happens to HIV viral load after seroconversion?

Increases

30

What happens to the patient as CD4 levels fall and viral load rises in HIV?

- Become more susceptible to infections
- Increasingly infectious
- Increasingly symptomatic