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Flashcards in Chlamydia Deck (56)
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1

What is chlamydia?

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydiae bacteria

2

What type of bacteria are Chlamydiae?

Small, obligate intracellular gram -ve bacteria

3

What cells are infected by Chlamydiae bacteria?

Human columnar and transitional epithelium

4

What type of Chlamydiae causes chlamydia most often?

Chlamydia trachomatis

5

What types of infections are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis?

- Ocular infection
- Genitourinary infections
- Proctitis
- Sexually acquired reactive arthritis

6

What can cause varying patterns of disease in chlamydia?

Different serological variants of C. trachomatis

7

What serological variants of C. trachomatis are responsible for GU infection?

Types D-K

8

How common is chlamydia compared to other STI’s?

It is the most commonly diagnosed STI in the UK

9

How common is chlamydia in terms of causing infertility?

It is the most common cause of preventable infertility worldwide

10

In what group of people is chlamydia most common?

Sexually active people under the age of 25

11

What percentage of cases of chlamydia occur in under 25’s?

75%

12

What percentage of people between 15-24 are infected with chlamydia?

1.5-10%

13

How many new cases of chlamydia occur each year worldwide?

131 million

14

What proportion of chlamydia cases are asymptomatic?

The majority

15

What are the risk factors for chlamydia?

- Age <25
- Partner +ve for chlamydia
- 2 or more sexual partners in preceding year
- Recent change in sexual partner
- Lack of consistent use of condoms
- Non-barrier contraception
- Infection with another STI
- Poor socio-economic status
- Genetic predisposition

16

How are most cases of chlamydia detected?

During screening or investigations for other GU illness

17

What are the symptoms seen in women with chlamydia?

- Vaginal discharge
- Dysuria
- Vague lower abdo pain
- Fever
- Intermenstrual or postcoital bleeding
- Deep dyspareunia

18

What are the two common presentations of chlamydia in men?

- Classical urethritis
- Epididymo-orchitis

19

What are the symptoms of classical urethritis in men with chlamydia?

- Dysuria
- Urethral discharge

20

What are the symptoms of epididymis-orchitis in men with chlamydia?

- Unilateral testicular pain
- Swelling (with or without)

21

What could be possible presentations of chlamydia in both sexes?

- Young adults with reactive arthritis
- Upper abdominal pain due to perihepatitis
- Proctitis with mucopurulent discharge

22

What is Reiter’s syndrome?

A triad of urethritis, arthritis and conjunctivitis that can be triggered by chlamydial infections

23

What is upper abdominal pain due to perihepatitis a feature of?

Fits-Hugh Curtis Syndrome

24

When may proctitis with mucopurulent discharge be a feature of chlamydia?

Due to rectal chlamydia following anal intercourse

25

What are the signs of chlamydia in women?

- Friable, inflamed cervix
- Mucopurulent endocervical discharge
- Abdominal tenderness
- Pelvic adnexal tenderness on bimanual palpation
- Cervical excitation

26

What are the signs of chlamydia in men?

- Epididymal tenderness
- Mucoid or mucopurulent discharge
- Perineal fullness due to prostatitis

27

What are the differentials for chlamydia?

- Gonorrhoea
- Trichomonas vaginalis
- UTI
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Endometriosis
- Urethral/vaginal foreign body
- Periurethral abscess

28

What test can identify chlamydia?

Nuclei acid amplification tests

29

How are samples for nucleic acid amplification tests obtained in suspected chlamydia?

- Vulvovaginal swab in women
- First catch urine specimen in men

30

How is a vulvovaginal swab for chlamydia performed?

- Swab inserted about 5cm into vagina and rotated gently for 10-30 seconds