Chlamydia Flashcards Preview

B - Gynaecology > Chlamydia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chlamydia Deck (56)
1

What is chlamydia?

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydiae bacteria

2

What type of bacteria are Chlamydiae?

Small, obligate intracellular gram -ve bacteria

3

What cells are infected by Chlamydiae bacteria?

Human columnar and transitional epithelium

4

What type of Chlamydiae causes chlamydia most often?

Chlamydia trachomatis

5

What types of infections are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis?

- Ocular infection
- Genitourinary infections
- Proctitis
- Sexually acquired reactive arthritis

6

What can cause varying patterns of disease in chlamydia?

Different serological variants of C. trachomatis

7

What serological variants of C. trachomatis are responsible for GU infection?

Types D-K

8

How common is chlamydia compared to other STI’s?

It is the most commonly diagnosed STI in the UK

9

How common is chlamydia in terms of causing infertility?

It is the most common cause of preventable infertility worldwide

10

In what group of people is chlamydia most common?

Sexually active people under the age of 25

11

What percentage of cases of chlamydia occur in under 25’s?

75%

12

What percentage of people between 15-24 are infected with chlamydia?

1.5-10%

13

How many new cases of chlamydia occur each year worldwide?

131 million

14

What proportion of chlamydia cases are asymptomatic?

The majority

15

What are the risk factors for chlamydia?

- Age <25
- Partner +ve for chlamydia
- 2 or more sexual partners in preceding year
- Recent change in sexual partner
- Lack of consistent use of condoms
- Non-barrier contraception
- Infection with another STI
- Poor socio-economic status
- Genetic predisposition

16

How are most cases of chlamydia detected?

During screening or investigations for other GU illness

17

What are the symptoms seen in women with chlamydia?

- Vaginal discharge
- Dysuria
- Vague lower abdo pain
- Fever
- Intermenstrual or postcoital bleeding
- Deep dyspareunia

18

What are the two common presentations of chlamydia in men?

- Classical urethritis
- Epididymo-orchitis

19

What are the symptoms of classical urethritis in men with chlamydia?

- Dysuria
- Urethral discharge

20

What are the symptoms of epididymis-orchitis in men with chlamydia?

- Unilateral testicular pain
- Swelling (with or without)

21

What could be possible presentations of chlamydia in both sexes?

- Young adults with reactive arthritis
- Upper abdominal pain due to perihepatitis
- Proctitis with mucopurulent discharge

22

What is Reiter’s syndrome?

A triad of urethritis, arthritis and conjunctivitis that can be triggered by chlamydial infections

23

What is upper abdominal pain due to perihepatitis a feature of?

Fits-Hugh Curtis Syndrome

24

When may proctitis with mucopurulent discharge be a feature of chlamydia?

Due to rectal chlamydia following anal intercourse

25

What are the signs of chlamydia in women?

- Friable, inflamed cervix
- Mucopurulent endocervical discharge
- Abdominal tenderness
- Pelvic adnexal tenderness on bimanual palpation
- Cervical excitation

26

What are the signs of chlamydia in men?

- Epididymal tenderness
- Mucoid or mucopurulent discharge
- Perineal fullness due to prostatitis

27

What are the differentials for chlamydia?

- Gonorrhoea
- Trichomonas vaginalis
- UTI
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Endometriosis
- Urethral/vaginal foreign body
- Periurethral abscess

28

What test can identify chlamydia?

Nuclei acid amplification tests

29

How are samples for nucleic acid amplification tests obtained in suspected chlamydia?

- Vulvovaginal swab in women
- First catch urine specimen in men

30

How is a vulvovaginal swab for chlamydia performed?

- Swab inserted about 5cm into vagina and rotated gently for 10-30 seconds

31

How is a first catch urine specimen for chlamydia taken?

- Should not have passed urine for last hour
- Catch first 20ml of sample

32

What are the criteria for testing for chlamydia?

- Symptoms of infection
- Sexual partners of people suspected for chlamydia
- All sexually active people under 25 annually (more often if changed partner)
- People under 25 who have been treated in last 3 months
- People who have concerns of exposure
- All women for TOP
- All those in GUM clinic
- Women being fitted with IUD and at risk of UTI

33

What does management of chlamydia include?

- Antibiotics
- Screening for other STI’s
- Partner notification

34

What is the first line treatment for uncomplicated chlamydia?

- Single dose of 1g azithromycin

35

What is an alternative to single dose treatment for chlamydia?

Doxycycline 100mg BD for 7 days

36

If doxycycline and azithromycin are contraindicated what can be given for chlamydia?

- Erythromycin 500mg BD for 10-14 days

37

What antibiotics should be given for chlamydia in pregnancy?

- Azithromycin 1g
- Erythromycin 500mg QDS for 7 days or BD for 14 days

38

When is test of cure advised in chlamydia?

- Pregnancy
- Persistent symptoms
- Non-compliance
- Re-exposed

39

When should test of cure be performed if required?

At least 3 weeks after treatment

40

What could cause a second positive result after chlamydia treatment?

- Poor adherence
- Re-infection
- Inadequacy of treatment
- False positive

41

When should a person detected positive on screening for chlamydia have a re-test?

3 months later

42

What is the ‘look back’ period for contact tracing in a male with urethral symptoms of chlamydia?

- 4 weeks prior to symptoms
- All contacts since symptoms

43

What is the ‘look back’ period for contact tracing in asymptomatic and non-urethral symptoms of chlamydia in men and women?

6 months

44

What should at-risk contacts be offered in chlamydia?

- Informed of risk
- Offered treatment
- Contact tracing
- STI testing

45

How can partners of individuals be informed of risk of chlamydia?

- By index patient (patient referral)
- By HCP (provider referral)

46

What advice should be given to patients with chlamydia and their partner(s)?

- Primarily sexually transmitted
- Infection is often asymptomatic
- May have had for months or years
- No test is 100% sensitive
- Complications of not treating chlamydia
- Importance of identifying and treating sexual partners
- Importance of compliance
- Side-effects of treatment
- Avoidance of sexual intercourse for a week after single-dose therapy
- Importance of testing for other STI’s
- Advice on safer sex

47

When should chlamydia be referred to a GUM clinic?

- Chlamydia is confirmed but cannot be managed in primary care
- Pregnancy
- PID
- Intolerance of treatment
- Diagnostic uncertainty
- Presence of ongoing symptoms despite treatment
- Multiple sexual partners
- Complicated upper genital tract infection

48

When should sexual abuse be considered in children or young people with chlamydia?

- <13 without evidence of vertical transmission
- 13-15 without evidence of vertical transmission or contraction from consensual activity with another young person
- 16-17 without evidence of vertical transmission or consensual sexual activity or with evidence of abuse of power

49

Why is follow-up necessary in chlamydia?

- Follow up partner notification
- Reinforce health education messages
- Check compliance
- Re-treat where necessary
- Arrange repeat testing if indicated

50

Do follow-ups for chlamydia need to be fat-to-face?

No, telephone is as good and more cost-effective

51

What are the potential complications of chlamydia?

- PID
- Infertility
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Epididymo-orchitis
- Urethral strictures
- Perihepatitis
- Reactive arthritis

52

What are the potential complications of chlamydia in pregnancy?

- Premature rupture of membranes
- Pre-term delivery
- Low birth weight
- Post-partum endometritis
- Neonatal ophthalmic infection or pneumonia

53

How can chlamydia be prevented?

- Promote safe sex
- Encourage early healthcare seeking behaviour
- Primary care involvement

54

What is the aim of screening for chlamydia?

Reduce the prevalence and transmission of chlamydia

55

Who can be screened for chlamydia?

Sexually active men and women under 25

56

Where can chlamydia screening take place?

- Healthcare setting
- Further/higher education
- Youth clubs
- Postal kits