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Flashcards in Investigations of Infertility Deck (78)
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1

What investigations are used to assess for male infertility?

- Semen analysis
- Analysis of sperm DNA
- Endocrine assessment
- Cytogenic studies
- Testicular/epididymal biopsy
- Tests for retrograde ejaculation
- Immunological tests

2

What is the most useful investigation into male infertility?

Semen analysis

3

How are semen samples collected?

Masturbation into a sterile container after 3 days abstinence and examined within 2 hours of collection

4

Where is the best place for semen sample collection?

In a private room adjacent to the androgeny laboratory to avoid cooling during transportation

5

What is the lower limit of normal semen volume?

1.5ml

6

What is the lower limit of normal total sperm number?

39x10^6 per ejaculate

7

What is the lower limit of normal sperm concentration?

15x10^6 per ml

8

What is the lower limit of normal total sperm motility?

40%

9

What is the lower limit of normal progressive sperm motility?

32%

10

What is the lower limit of normal sperm vitality (live sperm)?

58%

11

What is the lower limit of normal sperm morphology?

4%

12

What are the main features looked at in seme analysis?

- Volume
- Sperm concentration
- Motility

13

What is the semen volume range for 80% of fertile males?

1-4ml

14

What may a low semen volume suggest?

Androgen deficiency

15

What may a high semen volume suggest?

Abnormal accessory gland function

16

What is absence of sperm in semen called?

Azoospermia

17

What does azoospermia indicate?

Sterility

18

How may sperm be obtainable in azoospermia?

- Percutaneous epididymal aspiration
- Testicular aspiration
- Testicular biopsy

19

Why should findings if sperm concentration not be accepted on a single sample?

Can vary from day to day

20

What might abnormally high values of sperm concentration be associated with?

Subfertility

21

What would be an abnormally high sperm concentration?

>200 million per ml

22

What % of sperm should show good motility within an hour of collection?

60%

23

How does WHO grade sperm motility?

Grades 1-4

24

What is grade 1 sperm motility?

Rapid and linear progressive motility

25

What is grade 2 sperm motility?

Slow or sluggish linear or non-linear motility

26

What is grade 3 sperm motility?

Non-progressive motility

27

What is grade 4 sperm motility?

Immotile

28

Why may analysis of sperm DNA be performed as an investigation for infertility?

Integrity of sperm DNA is essential for normal fertilisation and transmission of paternal genetic information

29

What may damage to sperm DNA lead to?

Impaired fertility

30

What endocrine results suggest testicular damage?

High serum concentrations of FSH and low AMH