Flashcards in Investigations of Infertility Deck (78)
What investigations are used to assess for male infertility?
- Semen analysis
- Analysis of sperm DNA
- Endocrine assessment
- Cytogenic studies
- Testicular/epididymal biopsy
- Tests for retrograde ejaculation
- Immunological tests
What is the most useful investigation into male infertility?
How are semen samples collected?
Masturbation into a sterile container after 3 days abstinence and examined within 2 hours of collection
Where is the best place for semen sample collection?
In a private room adjacent to the androgeny laboratory to avoid cooling during transportation
What is the lower limit of normal semen volume?
What is the lower limit of normal total sperm number?
39x10^6 per ejaculate
What is the lower limit of normal sperm concentration?
15x10^6 per ml
What is the lower limit of normal total sperm motility?
What is the lower limit of normal progressive sperm motility?
What is the lower limit of normal sperm vitality (live sperm)?
What is the lower limit of normal sperm morphology?
What are the main features looked at in seme analysis?
- Sperm concentration
What is the semen volume range for 80% of fertile males?
What may a low semen volume suggest?
What may a high semen volume suggest?
Abnormal accessory gland function
What is absence of sperm in semen called?
What does azoospermia indicate?
How may sperm be obtainable in azoospermia?
- Percutaneous epididymal aspiration
- Testicular aspiration
- Testicular biopsy
Why should findings if sperm concentration not be accepted on a single sample?
Can vary from day to day
What might abnormally high values of sperm concentration be associated with?
What would be an abnormally high sperm concentration?
>200 million per ml
What % of sperm should show good motility within an hour of collection?
How does WHO grade sperm motility?
What is grade 1 sperm motility?
Rapid and linear progressive motility
What is grade 2 sperm motility?
Slow or sluggish linear or non-linear motility
What is grade 3 sperm motility?
What is grade 4 sperm motility?
Why may analysis of sperm DNA be performed as an investigation for infertility?
Integrity of sperm DNA is essential for normal fertilisation and transmission of paternal genetic information
What may damage to sperm DNA lead to?