Flashcards in Fibroids Deck (52)
What are uterine fibroids also known as?
What are uterine fibroids?
Benign smooth muscle tumours of the uterus
How common are uterine fibroids compared to other benign tumours in women?
They are the most common
What is the estimated incidence of fibroids?
What is the risk of a fibroid becoming malignant?
What do fibroids arise from?
The myometrium of the uterus
What are fibroids classified based on?
Their position in the uterine wall
What are the classifications of fibroids?
What is the most common type of fibroid?
Where is an intramural fibroid found?
Confined to myometrium of the uterus
Where is a submucosal fibroid?
Develops immediately underneath the endometrium of the uterus, and protrudes into the uterine cavity
Where is a subserosal fibroid?
Protrudes into and distorts the serosal surface of the uterus
What is the serosal surface of the uterus?
The outer surface
What might be a feature of subserosal fibroids?
May be pedunculated (on a stalk)
Describe the pathogenesis of fibroids?
Poorly understood, but their growth is thought to be stimulated by oestrogen
What are the risk factors for fibroids?
- Early menarche
- Increasing age
- Family history
How much does a family history of fibroids increase the risk?
Women with a 1st degree relative carry a 2.5x increased risk
How does ethnicity affect the risk of fibroids?
African-Americans are 3x more likely than Caucasians
How are the majority of cases of fibroids discovered?
Women are asymptomatic, and the fibroids are discovered incidentally on pelvic or abdominal examination
If symptomatic, how may fibroids present?
- Pressure symptoms +/- abdominal distention
- Heavy menstrual bleeding
- Acute pelvic pain (rare)
What pressure symptoms may be present in fibroids?
- Urinary frequency
- Chronic retention
Why might sub fertility be a sign of fibroids?
Due to the obstructive effect of the fibroid
What might cause acute pelvic pain in fibroids?
- Red degeneration
- Pedunculated fibroids can undergo torsion
When can red degeneration of fibroids occur?
What is red degeneration of fibroids?
Where rapidly growing fibroid undergoes necrosis and haemorrhage
What may be found on examination in fibroids?
A solid mass or enlarged uterus may be palpable on abdominal or bimanual examination. The uterus is normally non-tender
What are the differential diagnoses of fibroids?
- Endometrial polyp
- Ovarian tumours
What is leiomyosarcoma?
Malignancy of myometrium
What is adenomyosis?
Presence of functional endometrial tissue within the myometrium