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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (31)
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  • mutual relationship in which those involved influence one another's behaviors and beliefs, and define friendship quality as the satisfaction derived from the relationship: 5 stages ABCDE


frienship trends youth Old

more when young 

old important for mainaining life satisfaction 




  • Acquaintanceship
  • Buildup
  • Continuation
  • Deterioration
  • Ending


three broad themes that underlie adult friendship?

Reveal and support

Do shit together 

friends keep us entertained and are sources of amusement, fun and recreation


Lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity:

  • young more friends old less


  • social contact is motivated by a variety of goals, including information seeking, self-concept, emotional regulation


  • meeting many new people is important
  • Main goal for young adults



How do friendships differ between men and women? 

  • Women base it on social bonds and sharing
  • Men base it on sharing activities


Assortative mating

  • states that people find parters baed on their similarity to each other
  • Education, religious beliefs, physical traits, age, socio economic status, intelligence, political ideology


Battered woman syndrome

  • a woman believes she cannot leave the abusive situation and may go so far to kill her abuser
  • Contributing factors include:
  • Being female
  • Latin/african american
  • Atypical family structure
  • Having more romantic partners
  • Early onset of sexual activity
  • Being a victim of child abuse


The continuum of abuse is

  • Verbally aggressive
  • Physically aggressive
  • Severely physically aggressive
  • Murder


Describe the seven different categories of elder abuse

  • 1) physical abuse - causing bodily injury, physical pain, impairment
  • 2) sexual abuse - nonconsensual of any kind
  • 3) emotional/psychological - infliction of anguish, pain, distress
  • 4) financial or material exploitation - illegal
  • 5) abandonment - deserting an elder by someone who had custody or assumed responsibility
  • 6) neglect - refusal or failure to fulfill obligations
  • 7) self-neglect - threaten his own health/safety
  • 1 in 4 are at risk for some kind of abuse
  • Few are reported and mostly it's a case of neglect


challenges of being single 

  • Lots of biases against single people
  • Stereotypes see married people as kind and caring more often than singles
  • Rental agents prefer married
  • Pressure is especially strong for women
  • Twice as many african american women are single during young adulthood versus their EU descendant counterparts
  • Important distinction between adults who are temporarily single and those who chose to remain single
  • For singles, the decision to never marry is a gradual one
  • Marks an experience if becoming single when an individual identifies with being single more so than marriage


Marital success 

is an umbrella term referring to any marital outcome


Marital quality

a subjective evaluation of the couple's relationship on a number of different dimensions 


Marital adjustment 

  • the degree that spouses accommodate each other over a certain period of time


Marital satisfaction 

  • a global assessment of one's marriage
  • Important predictors of marriage end/success:
  • Young marriages tend to end (teens/early 20s)
  • Financial security
  • Pregnancy
  • Time of marriage
  • Homogamy similarity of values and interests a couple shares (the more on many levels, the better)
  • Exchange theory based on each partner contributing something to the relationship that the other would be hard-pressed to provide
  • Trust, consulting each other, honesty, making joint decisions, commitment all help
  • Couples for whom religion is important is a factor


What is the normal pattern of marital satisfaction across the lifespan? 

Highest at the start, falls until children begin leaving home, raises again later in life but for some it never rebounds, so they are emotionally divorced


Vulnerability-stress-adaptation model 

  • sees marital quality as a dynamic process resulting from the couple's ability to handle stressful events in the context of their particular vulnerabilities and resources
  • As they learn to tackle stress, the quality of marriage will likely improve // if they don't adapt to stress, then divorce


Having a child lowers marital satisfaction especially if the kid is difficult 

But childless couples also experience a drop 

Contributing factors are: 

  • Disillusionment - falling out of love
  • Less demonstration of affection
  • Less feeling that they are responsive
  • Increased ambivalence


Grown apart but continue to live together referred to as 

  • married singles / they are emotionally divorced but live as housemates
  • For these people having more time together is not welcome 


who gets divorced and why

  • 50% in US, lower in Italy and other countries
  • African americans and asian americans tended to be married longer at the time of divorce than EU counterparts
  • Higher education = lower rates of divorce
  • Negative emotions displayed during conflict predicted early divorce but not later divorce
  • Reflects a pattern of wife-demand, husband-withdrawal
  • Unrequited interests and excitement
  • They usually feel a lot of contempt, criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling
  • Absence of positive emotions - people need to be told they are loved and what they do matters to their partner
  • Covenant marriage is an approach to help couple stay together (Arkansas, Louisiana, Arizona)


How does widowhood affect men and women differently?

  • Women are more likely to be widowed because they tend to marry older men and men mortality rate is lower 
  • Half of women over 65
  • Only 15% of men over 65
  • Women can expect to live 10 years as a widow due to the fact that they usually marry older and mortality rates are lower for men


recorvery from divorce

  • men tougher in short term women in the long run: financial 
  • Remarriage
  • Typically they wait 3.5 years before remarrying
  • African americans remarry slower than other groups
  • There's no evidence that those who are avoiding a rebound syndrome have more future success in the subsequent marriage than those who wait less long
  • There can be problems for women remarrying in terms of losing benefits, payments and objections from children



living alone, together

two older adults form a romantic union but stay living apart


Nuclear family

(most common in western world) is parent(s) and child(re)


Extended family 

  • most common around the world where grandparents live with the kids and grandkids



  • the well-being of the family takes precedence over the concerns of the individual family member (more latino college kids live at home)
  • Asian americans also have familism as well as valuing:
  • Getting good grades
  • Maintaining discipline
  • Concern with what other people think
  • Conformity
  • Teens report higher obligation to family



  •  is the person who gathers family members together for celebrations and keeps them in touch with each other


Sandwich generation

  • caught between the competing demands of two generations, their parents and their children



  • people who are not married but live together
  • Has increased 10 fold over the last 30 years
  • People with els education cohabit more so
  • Ethnic rates are about the same
  • 2 reasons:
  • Test marriage
  • As an alt to marriage
  • Having cohabited does not make the marriage better, usually worse


Gay and Lesbian couples 

  • Much the same as het
  • Dual earner and share chores
  • Couples tend to be more dissimilar in terms of race, age, education,
  • Gay men tend to have more short term relationships
  • Lesbians and het women connect sex with intimate bonding and cohabit faster than het couples
  • Report receiving less family support than married or cohabit het couples