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1

Ageism is

Select one:

a. a form of discrimination against older adults simply due to their age. 

b. a form of negative stereotype against older adults because of their age.

c. a form of prejudice against older adults because of their race.

d. a form of myth about older adults that is highly positive.

 

a. a form of discrimination against older adults simply due to their age.

2

Correlational studies

Select one:

a. are effective with variables that can not be manipulated.

b. provide important information about the strength of relationships between variables.

c. can not provide information concerning causation.

d. all of these. 

 all of these

3

A manager of a large department store tries to avoid hiring people over the age of 65 because he believes they cannot handle the strain and take a very long time to learn the job. The belief of the manager is known as

Select one:

a. contextualism.

b. socialization.

c. ageism. 

d. dysthmia.

ageism

4

In research, the term used to refer to a group of people who experienced the same event or were born during the same time period is called a

Select one:

a. age effect.

b. time-of-measurement effect.

c. practice effect.

d. cohort effect.

The correct answer is: cohort effect

5

Age changes are studied most effectively using a _____ design.

Select one:

a. cross-sectional

b. longitudinal 

c. time-lag

d. sequential

 longitudinal

6

Dr. Geri Atrics wants to survey people 21 and 90 years old to get their opinions concerning financial aid to college students. Which research design is Dr. Atrics most likely to use?

Select one:

a. cross-sectional 

b. longitudinal

c. time-lag

d. sequential

The correct answer is: cross-sectional

7

Dr. Dee Vellop wants to know what will happen to the 1990, 1991, and 1992 classes of gerontology graduates during the decade following their graduation. Which research design will Dr. Vellop most likely use?

Select one:

a. cross-sequential 

b. longitudinal

c. time-lag

d. longitudinal-sequential

longitudinal-sequential

8

Normative age-graded influences are events that

Select one:

a. are unique to each person.

b. occur at a specific age for each person.

c. generally occur around the same age for most people. 

d. generally occur during a specific time period for most people

generally occur around the same age for most people.

9

A _____ design combines two or more cross-sectional designs.

Select one:

a. cross-sequential 

b. longitudinal

c. cross-sectional

d. longitudinal sequential

cross-sequential

10

The question of whether we all develop the same way or whether there are multiple pathways to development refers to which controversy?

Select one:

a. nature-nurture

b. continuity-discontinuity

c. stability-change

d. universal versus context-specific

 universal versus context-specific

11

Processing speed _____ rapidly as people age.

Select one:

a. increases

b. declines 

c. distorts

d. inclines

declines

12

Which region implicated in emotional processing?

Select one:

a. cerebellum

b. sensorimotor area

c. hippocampus 

d. ventromedial prefrontal cortex

d. ventromedial prefrontal cortex

13

Research has found that declines in the dopaminergic system are related to declines in _____ memory and _____ tasks.

Select one:

a. long-term; speed

b. semantic; attention

c. episodic; thought

d. episodic; speed 

episodic; speed

14

According to the STAC model, older adults might have trouble suppressing

Select one:

a. the default network. 

b. the prefrontal cortex.

c. perceptual cortex.

d. the CRUNCH response.

the default network

15

Well-practiced tasks, vocabulary, and wisdom can be _____ in old age.

Select one:

a. lost

b. preserved 

c. altered

d. distorted

preserved

16

As one grows older, core emotional memory network regions are well-_____ in emotional memory.

Select one:

a. preserved 

b. balanced

c. deteriorated

d. challenged

a. preserved 

17

Reduced frontal recruitment in aging is _____ dependent.

Select one:

a. recall

b. context 

c. recognition

d. thought

b. context 

18

The cingulate cortex is affiliated with the prefrontal cortex, and is involved in _____ processing.

Select one:

a. cognitive 

b. emotionally neutral

c. emotionally negative

d. emotionally positive

d. emotionally positive

19

Emotional processing areas of the brain are _____, whereas higher-order executive cognitive processes seem to _____ as we age.

Select one:

a. preserved; decline 

b. conserved; increase

c. preserved; increase

d. conserved; decline

a. preserved; decline 

20

The concept of plasticity is clearly illustrated by the findings associated with

Select one:

a. exercise and the aging brain.

b. all of the alternatives.

c. neural stem cells. 

d. nutrition and the aging brain.

b. all of the alternatives.

21

Define lifespan perspective.

What are the four key features of the lifespan perspective as identified by Paul Baltes?

Provide original examples for each feature.

Lifespan perspectives describes human development as happening in 2 phases:

1) early phase including childhood and adolescence

2) later phase including early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age

Paul Baltes details 4 key features: 

Multi-directionality: is the idea that as we grow in certain capacities, we also decline in others. Example: an older person who has played billiards all their life may develop better strategy for winning due to their experiences, however the onset of Parkinson's would make it hard for them to hold the cue stick. 

Plasticity: Is the idea that in combination and in response to the environment, the brain can adapt and grow (in its function and structure) to meet new challenges and demands. Example: A person who exercises, plays the piano, and is introduced to complex mathematical tasks in mid- and later-life would stand a better chance of experiencing plasticity that would promote better cognitive and memory skills.

Historical Context: says that the era in which we live our lives determines how we age. Example: a friend of mine had hodgkin's lymphoma a few years ago. He mentioned that if he'd been born 30 years earlier, he'd now be dead, as a treatment had not yet been developed to treat his disease.  

Multiple Causation: describes how the forces of biology, psychology, social factors and environmental factors play a role in how we age. Example: An older man gets lung cancer, suffers from depression, lives in a 3rd world with a lot of smog in the environment will be much worse off than his counterpart who never got sick, has been treated for his mood disorder, lives in Canada and in a rural mountain town with no pollution problems. 

22

What is neural plasticity?

What are neural stem cells?

Describe the evidence that supports plasticity.

How do exercise and nutrition affect brain aging, and how is this related to plasticity?

Plasticity: Is the idea that in combination and in response to the environment, the brain can adapt and grow (in its function and structure) to meet new challenges and demands. Example: A person who exercises, plays the piano, and is introduced to complex mathematical tasks in mid and later life would stand a better chance of undergoing plasticity that would promote better cognitive and memory skills.

Neural Stem Cells are cells in the brain that can generate new neurons right through to the end of old age. These cells will have an effect on the structure and functioning of the brain, which can be described as plasticity 

Evidence supporting plasticity is relatively new though tests and studies have shown that cognitiv and memory skills can be improved; by how much is not yet known.

Aerobic exercise is correlated positively with plasticity; specifically with greater hippocampal volume, associated with spatial memory  

Nutrition research is also early, but correlations have been made to amygdalla size and other brain structures. Trans fats (cancer causing free radicals) are bad, omega fats and vitamins are realted positively with plasticity.   

23

Questionnaires and interviews are examples of _____ techniques.

Select one:

a. observational

b. correlational

c. sampling

d. self-report 

d. self-report 

24

In a _____ design, one group of participants is studied repeatedly over a period of time.

Select one:

a. cross-sectional

b. longitudinal 

c. cross-sequential

d. longitudinal-sequential

b. longitudinal 

25

The extent to which development is influenced by heredity versus experience is known as the

Select one:

a. nature-nurture controversy. 

b. continuity-discontinuity controversy.

c. stability-change controversy.

d. universal versus context specific controvers

a. nature-nurture controversy. 

p 17

26

A study that focuses on the description of the relationship between cognitive development and personality development is an example of

Select one:

a. a self-report study.

b. an observational study.

c. an experiment.

d. a correlational study

d. a correlational study

27

Plasticity refers to

Select one:

a. development and aging involving both decline and growth.

b. the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development. 

c. the fact that each of us is affected by a variety of factors, both positive and negative.

d. our differing cultural backgrounds

b. the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development. 

p 4

28

The procedures used in research to ensure that participants are treated fairly are known as

Select one:

a. ethical principles. 

b. psychological principles.

c. psychometrics.

d. debriefing.

a. ethical principles. 

p 30-31

29

The question of whether we all develop the same way or whether there are multiple pathways to development refers to which controversy?

Select one:

a. nature-nurture

b. continuity-discontinuity

c. stability-change

d. universal versus context-specific 

d. universal versus context-specific 

30

Multidirectionality refers to

Select one:

a. development and aging involving both decline and growth. 

b. the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development.

c. the fact that each of us is affected by a variety of factors, both positive and negative.

d. our differing cultural backgrounds.

a. development and aging involving both decline and growth.