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1

Dixon and colleagues found that when older adults worked together to recall a story

Select one:

a. they confused each other.

b. their performance was better than as individuals working alone. 

c. they each remembered different aspects of the story.

d. they only remembered certain aspects of the story and completely forgot other aspects.

b. their performance was better than as individuals working alone. 

2

Hess and Pullen (1994) studied impression formation and found that, when negative information was provided after an initial positive portrayal of a person, older adults

Select one:

a. were likely to change their initial impression. 

b. were not likely to change their initial impression.

c. only paid attention to the positive information.

d. only paid attention to the negative information.

a. were likely to change their initial impression. 

3

An 82-year-old woman decides she is not able to drive on the interstate any more, but she realizes that it is not necessary to do so because she can get to most locations by avoiding highways. According to Heckhausen and Schulz, this is an example of

Select one:

a. primary control. 

b. secondary control.

c. possible selves.

d. problem-focused coping mechanisms.

 

b. secondary control.

4

According to Brandtstadter, a person who engages in activities to alleviate declines is said to be engaging in

Select one:

a. primary control.

b. accommodations.

c. assimilative activities. 

d. emotion-focused coping.

c. assimilative activities. 

5

Older adults pay attention to and seek out emotional information more than do younger adults. This probably helps explain why older adults have a _____ bias.

Select one:

a. positivity

b. negativity 

c. first impression

d. age

b. negativity 

6

The results of research on married couples and collaborative cognition illustrates

Select one:

a. older couples perform better than singles, but not as well as young married couples.

b. older couples perform worse than younger couples.

c. older couples perform as well as younger couples. 

d. older couples perform as well as younger singles.

c. older couples perform as well as younger couples. 

7

Some researchers argue that changes in _____ might lead to an increased need for closure with age.

Select one:

a. personal control

b. possible selves

c. emotional selectivity

d. processing resources 

d. processing resources 

8

When people develop explanations of another person's behaviour based on things outside the control of the other person, this is know as a

Select one:

a. situational attribution. 

b. causal attribution.

c. causation.

d. dispositional attribution.

a. situational attribution. 

9

Alice has misplaced her keys (which rarely happens), but her grandchildren are very worried that something might be wrong with grandma. Never mind that her granddaughter has done the same thing three times this week. The above is an example of

Select one:

a. an age-based double standard. 

b. an age-based stereotype.

c. the beginning signs of Alzheimer's disease.

d. senility.

a. an age-based double standard. 

10

Before you are told the details about a car accident your friend was in, you are told that the other person involved in the accident was an older man who is hard of hearing. Whether this information will influence your social judgement of the event is related to your

Select one:

a. social context effect.

b. implicit priming. 

c. implicit theories of personality.

d. impression formation.

b. implicit priming. 

11

Which of the following statements is true?

Select one:

a. Widows always grieve more than widowers.

b. Men are generally older when they are widowed than are women. 

c. Remarriage does not help widows deal with the loss of their first husband.

d. Widowers have more financial problems than widows.

b. Men are generally older when they are widowed than are women. 

12

Grandparenting styles are _____ with different grandchildren, and ______ as grandparents age.

Select one:

a. similar; change

b. different; change 

c. similar; stay the same

d. different; stay the same

different; change 

13

Which of the following is not a reason why couple choose cohabitation?

Select one:

a. convenience

b. testing a relationship

c. health benefits 

d. marriage alternative

c. health benefits 

14

A family consisting of grandparents, parents, children, and other relatives is called

Select one:

a. nuclear.

b. extended. 

c. reconstituted.

d. expanded.

b. extended. 

15

Middle-aged mothers are often put into the role of

Select one:

a. kinkeeper. 

b. primary bread-winner.

c. happy housewife.

d. empty-nest basket cases.

a. kinkeeper. 

16

Gottman’s research on predictors of divorce indicated

Select one:

a. negative emotions displayed during conflict predict late divorce but not early divorce.

b. negative emotions displayed during conflict predict early divorce but not late divorce. 

c. positive emotions displayed during conflict predict early divorce but not late divorce.

d. positive emotions displayed during conflict predict late divorce but not early divorce.

b. negative emotions displayed during conflict predict early divorce but not late divorce. 

17

Researchers include all of the following as themes that characterize adult friendships, except

Select one:

a. affective basis of friendship.

b. communal nature.

c. sociability.

d. physical intimacy. 

d. physical intimacy. 

18

Marriage based on similarities of values and interests is called

Select one:

a. monogamy.

b. homogamy. 

c. polygamy.

d. idunnogamy.

b. homogamy. 

19

One approach to characterizing the manner of interaction between grandparents and grandchildren is to consider the __________ dimensions of interactions.

Select one:

a. biological and social

b. social and cognitive

c. cognitive and personal

d. social and personal 

d. social and personal 

20

In the long run, who are usually most seriously affected by divorce?

Select one:

a. women 

b. men

c. grandparents

d. lawyers

a. women 

21

What is personal control? How is it multidimensional? Provide original examples. Describe the different control strategies. What are the criticisms of primary control?

  • personal control is defined by how strongly one believes that one's actions and thoughts will affect one's performance and outcome in a certain context or situation. 

if I believe strongly that I have more effect on a situation then I have high personal control, and if it is the opposite, then I have low personal control. 

It is multidimensional as it plays a role in how older adults think about memory, intelligence, health and mood, to name but a few areas. 

In general, personal control around physical health is high until the 70s when it starts to decline later in old age.

- Example: My father may go to the gym everyday in his 60s and early 70s with the notion that he has control over his physical fitness and general health, though if he acquires a chronic injury in his back from osteoporosis, he may not be able to go to the gym, and thus will sense a loss of personal control. 

- positive beliefs around personal control are associated with less stress, better cognitive functioning, better health and better relations in social contexts

Control strategies: 

  • Assimilative Activities: help to prevent or manage decline in areas where the person derives a lot of pride. Example: if I take pride in my hearing because I'm a musician, I may use a hearing aid when my hearing starts to decline. I am changing my environment to get to my goal. 
  • Accommodation: is a way to readjust my goal so that I don't feel I'm at a loss. In the same example, if my hearing is declining, I might take up painting, letting the pride in my keen sense of hearing to go by reimagining a fulfilling approach to my creativity.  
  • Immunizing mechanisms: is a form of denying that your faculties are declining, thereby keeping up your sense of control. Someone tells me that I am not remembering things as sharply as I used to, and I balk at this idea.  
  •  
  • Primary control strategies: are where one changes the environment so that they can still achieve their goal. If I lost my monthly performance gig at the piano bar, I'd go out looking for another one so that I'd have another gig. 
  • Secondary control strategies: are in line with accommodation, where I change my goals and outlook in order to achieve goals that are attainable. If I used to swim a mile every morning, perhaps now I swim half a mile so that I still feel like I have control. 
  •  
  • Criticism regarding primary control:
  • Some researchers question whether the loss of primary actually has an effect on positive emotions 
  • they think that it is not necessarily advantageous to focus on maintaining primary control since adapting as we grow older is a natural progression of the life cycle
  • In collectivist cultures such as in East Asia, individualistic strategies related to primary control are not as highly valued, instead, interdependence with others is more the focus

22

What is the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity? How does it explain the developmental pattern of friendship formation? How do friendships differ between men and women?

  • Lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity: is a way of describing how we choose our friendships based on goals that are motivated by information seeking, sense of who we are, and emotional support

When a person is younger, they need to meet many people to figure out who they are and how they fit into the social context at large. They need emotional support, as well, but that is not the primary motivator. 

In older adults, however, emotional regulation is a big priority, so choosing friendships is a more highly selective endeavor. They tend not to replace friendships that have gone away, so they tend to have fewer friends than young adults. 

Men and women:

Women, both old and young, tend to base their friendships on emotional sharing whereas men tend to base their friendships on sharing activities. 

For example, I have many male friends who I only see when we have a musical performance together. I don't see them unless we work together, but we consider each other very close friends. My wife makes a concerted effort to foster similar relationships outside of the work environment.

3 factors in a friendship are: 

1) emotional support and shared intimacy, based on trust and loyalty

2) sharing activities and interests

3) to entertain each other; fun, amusement, recreation  

23

When people develop explanations of behaviour, it is known as a

Select one:

a. situational attribution.

b. causal attribution. 

c. causation.

d. dispositional attribution.

b. causal attribution. 

24

When in a new situation, you draw on prior experiences. This is known as

Select one:

a. knowledge base.

b. social context base.

c. social knowledge. 

d. implicit memory

c. social knowledge. 

25

Older adults pay attention to and seek out emotional information more than do younger adults. This probably helps explain why older adults have a _____ bias.

Select one:

a. positivity

b. negativity 

c. first impression

d. age

b. negativity 

26

Some researchers argue that changes in _____ might lead to an increased need for closure with age.

Select one:

a. personal control

b. possible selves

c. emotional selectivity

d. processing resources 

d. processing resources 

27

Your overall feeling about what a person is like based on what you learned from your first meeting is called

Select one:

a. initial impression.

b. judgement impression.

c. judgement formation.

d. impression formation. 

d. impression formation. 

28

In the theory of personal control developed by Heckhausen and Schulz, control is viewed as

Select one:

a. a motivational system that regulates human behaviour.

b. the give and take of mechanisms that regulate human behaviour.

c. minimizing the impact of failures in performance.

d. none of these. 

a. a motivational system that regulates human behaviour.

29

The most appropriate conclusion to draw from research on personal control is

Select one:

a. personal control increases with age.

b. personal control decreases with age.

c. personal control is multidimensional and complex. 

d. personal control is highly stable across domains.

c. personal control is multidimensional and complex. 

30

The activation of an automatic, unconscious stereotype is known as

Select one:

a. implicit social beliefs.

b. implicit stereotyping. 

c. implicit attributions.

d. explicit stereotyping.

b. implicit stereotyping.