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Flashcards in Quiz 5 Version 1 Deck (75)
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1

According to Erikson, the basis for personality growth is

Select one:

a. achieving a balance of forces.

b. blending among traits.

c. resolving struggles between opposing tendencies. 

d. achieving formal operations.

c. resolving struggles between opposing tendencies. 

2

According to McAdams, the narrative that people create and revise throughout adulthood is a

Select one:

a. life-span construct.

b. life story. 

c. life narrative.

d. scenario.

b. life story. 

3

Which of the following is not one of Kotre's types of generativity?

Select one:

a. cultural

b. agentic

c. technical

d. personal 

d. personal 

4

Findings by Whitbourne suggest that the two most important sources of identity come from

Select one:

a. friends and work.

b. family and work. 

c. friends and family.

d. work and children.

b. family and work. 

5

Research on the model of personality traits by Costa and McCrae shows

Select one:

a. little evidence of stability.

b. stability for only a few years.

c. no support for trait theories.

d. strong support for long-term stability. 

d. strong support for long-term stability. 

6

Subjective well-being, as measured by life satisfaction/happiness, tends to show _________ across the lifespan.

Select one:

a. an inverted U-shaped pattern

b. a U-shaped pattern 

c. a linearly declining pattern

d. a linearly increasing pattern

b. a U-shaped pattern 

7

An approach to personality that explicitly takes into account contextual factors consists of

Select one:

a. dispositional traits.

b. personal concerns. 

c. personality constructs.

d. situational specific.

b. personal concerns. 

8

Which of the following is not a dimension of the theory by Costa and McCrae?

Select one:

a. neuroticism

b. psychoticism 

c. agreeableness

d. conscientiousness

b. psychoticism 

9

The epigenetic principle in the theory by Erikson means that

Select one:

a. ego development is determined by the environment.

b. each psychosocial strength has its own special time of importance. 

c. the order of the stages of ego development is variable.

d. psychosocial development is due to assimilation-accommodation.

b. each psychosocial strength has its own special time of importance. 

10

According to Jung, which of the following age groups is most likely to act in accordance with gender-role stereotypes?

Select one:

a. young adults 

b. middle-aged adults

c. young-old adults

d. old-old adults

a. young adults 

11

A major theme of psychosocial theories of depression is

Select one:

a. loss. 

b. self-esteem.

c. ego.

d. growth.

a. loss. 

12

Using which behavioural technique can caregivers reduce the difficult behaviours of Alzheimer's patients?

Select one:

a. milieu therapy

b. differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour 

c. spaced reinforcement

d. cognitive retraining

b. differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour 

13

Damaged and dying neurons that collect around a core of beta-amyloid protein produce

Select one:

a. neurofibrillary tangles.

b. granulovacuolar bodies.

c. synaptic nodes.

d. neuritic plaques. 

d. neuritic plaques. 

14

During dinnertime, Joe, an Alzheimer's patient, often acts out and throws his food. However, tonight he is sitting quietly and eating, which prompts the nursing home staff to reward him. Which technique is the staff most likely employing?

Select one:

a. Milieu therapy

b. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour 

c. Spaced reinforcement

d. Cognitive retraining

b. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour 

15

The formal process of measuring, understanding, and predicting behaviour is known as

Select one:

a. a life-course review.

b. assessment. 

c. examination of available resources.

d. psychological testing.

b. assessment. 

16

Believing that depression involves internal belief systems is a characteristic of

Select one:

a. cognitive-behavioural theories. 

b. biological theories.

c. psychoanalytic theories.

d. biosocial theories.

a. cognitive-behavioural theories. 

17

One aspect of clinical depression that must be evaluated carefully in older adults is

Select one:

a. dysphoria.

b. expressionlessness. 

c. self-deprecation.

d. physical symptoms.

d. physical symptoms.

18

What is a frequently overlooked factor in understanding behaviour and developmental history?

Select one:

a. sociocultural influences 

b. biological influences

c. psychological influences

d. life-cycle influences

a. sociocultural influences 

19

According to a prevalence study of adults in the US, approximately _____ of adults over the age of 50 had a clinical depressive disorder.

Select one:

a. 3%

b. 5% 

c. 7%

d. 10%

b. 5% 

20

Describe the class of theories known as life transition theories. Summarize the evidence for and against a midlife crisis. What is a midlife correction?

Some theorists believe that people go through specific crisis that happen at particular times. These theories were based on ideas made prominent by Erikson and Jung. One of the most common life transition theories is that of the mid-life crisis. The classic example if of the middle aged man who, as a result of a mid-life depression that relates to how he sees himself aging, leaves his wife and family for a much younger woman, perhaps quits his job to pursue more youthful activities and buys a sports car. Levinson & Levinson's study points to the prevalence of this crisis, but subsequent research has debunked it. It seems that  lot around the idea of the mid-life crisis is propped up by media stories and pop culture. 

Alternatively, middle age is a time with the highest cognitive power, most awareness around the self, motivations and emotions, most sense around personal control, purpose in life, and generativity. These all have positive implications, but they also can bring upon more complexities in life. 

Middle age can be better seen in terms of a period with a lot of gains and losses that may require a "mid-life correction". This correction allows one to reevaluate motivations, goals, successes and failures in order to refocus a person's mission in life and work towards achieving an optimum amount of satisfaction. 

These corrections can happen over an extended amount of time in mid-life, they are not age specific for everyone. 

Cross culturally speaking (aside from EU and North american), these mid-life transitions are seen as related to life cycle events such as raising a family, moving, changing employment, getting divorced, to name a few...

21

What is multidimensional assessment? What are the factors that affect assessment? What are the major assessment methods? What are the developmental issues related to therapy?

A multidimensional assessment involves working with a person's medical, psychological and socio-cultural information to ascertain their condition. It depends on reliability and validity of the methods used. A team consisting of a physician, psychologist, medical professional such as a nurse, and a social worker would all be responsible for assessing different areas of the person's life. 

Medical exams used by doctors, mental status exams by psychologists, observing day to day activities may be monitored by a nurse, and a person's familial relations or financial situation may be observed by the social worker. 

2 main factors affect assessment:

1) observer bias in both positive and negative light. This can relate to ethnicity, for instance. In an example of positive bias, a physician may have a positive bias to a Sardinian and overlook health concerns because Sardinians are known to have some of the best health of all cultures. On the flip side, they may assume poor health about someone who comes from a low socio-economic sphere. 

2) Environmental conditions can affect the way observations and tests are carried out. A person may be asked to perform a daily living task in an environment that is very distracting and unfamiliar to the person, thus reducing memory cues a person has to complete a task. This may skew the observers perception of the patient's cognitive and/or motor abilities.  

There are 6 major assessment methods: 

  • Interview (could be face to face in person)
  • Self-report (often unreliable as a person with cognitive challenges may not be able to accurately detail the report)
  • Report by others (observations by family members)
  • Psychophysiological assessment (for e.g.  Neuro-feedback observation)
  • Direct observation
  • Performance based assessment (watching them do a task)

There are 2 primary forms of therapy: medical and psychotherapeutic 

Medication needs to be closely monitored, as effects change with age and multiple medications can complicate health matters. Also, people may forget to take their medication

Psychotherapeutic methods can be effective but close attention must be paid to gearing the approach to the specific population. Older adults may not respond as well to a psychoanalytic theory, but they may do very well with behavioral or cognitive treatments. Psychotherapy should promote successful aging, prevention and aid with social contexts

22

Personality adjustment refers to developmental changes in personality occurring as

Select one:

a. an adaptive response. 

b. an ideal response.

c. an ego response.

d. a conflict response.

a. an adaptive response. 

23

What are the three motivational components of McAdam's model of generativity?

Select one:

a. inner desire, belief, action

b. commitment, concern, action 

c. cultural demand, concern, inner desire

d. cultural demand, commitment, belief

c. cultural demand, concern, inner desire

24

An approach to personality that explicitly takes into account contextual factors consists of

Select one:

a. dispositional traits.

b. personal concerns.

c. personality constructs. 

d. situational specific.

b. personal concerns.

25

Which of the following is not one of Kotre's types of generativity?

Select one:

a. cultural

b. agentic

c. technical 

d. personal

d. personal

26

The best conclusion to draw from research concerning the midlife crisis is that

Select one:

a. there is no question it exists.

b. there is little data to support its existence. 

c. it clearly exists for women but not for men.

d. it clearly exists for men but not for women.

b. there is little data to support its existence. 

27

Older adults who reported having very little religious commitment also reported

Select one:

a. unstable dispositional traits.

b. low self-worth.

c. unstable personal concerns.

d. high life satisfaction. 

b. low self-worth.

28

The epigenetic principle in the theory by Erikson means that

Select one:

a. ego development is determined by the environment.

b. each psychosocial strength has its own special time of importance. 

c. the order of the stages of ego development is variable.

d. psychosocial development is due to assimilation-accommodation.

b. each psychosocial strength has its own special time of importance. 

29

In McAdams model of generativity, meaning is derived from the interactive effects of

Select one:

a. concern, action, and commitment. 

b. motivational sources, commitment, and belief.

c. motivational sources, thoughts and plans, and behaviour.

d. thoughts and plans, behaviour, and action.

c. motivational sources, thoughts and plans, and behaviour.

30

Subjective well-being, as measured by life satisfaction/happiness, tends to show _________ across the lifespan.

Select one:

a. an inverted U-shaped pattern

b. a U-shaped pattern 

c. a linearly declining pattern

d. a linearly increasing pattern

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b. a U-shaped pattern