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1

The PCP model of person-environment interactions by Kahana emphasizes the core concept of

Select one:

a. competence.

b. environmental stress.

c. personal factors.

d. proactive adaptations. 

d. proactive adaptations. 

2

A person's potential ability to perform a wide range of activities considered essential for independent living is known as

Select one:

a. activities of daily living.

b. instrumental activities of daily living.

c. everyday competence. 

d. environmental competence.

c. everyday competence. 

3

A facility that provides assistance with personal care, such as assistance with medication, housekeeping, laundry service, and meals, but does not provide major medical care, is called

Select one:

a. a nursing home.

b. an assisted living facility. 

c. an adult family home.

d. a psychiatric hospital.

b. an assisted living facility. 

4

Secondary baby talk is also known as

Select one:

a. incongruent speech.

b. patronizing speech.

c. infantilization. 

d. babyspeak.

c. infantilization. 

5

Whether one believes that one is in control of a situation influences how competent one is. In the model of everyday competence by Willis, this is termed

Select one:

a. an antecedent.

b. a mechanism. 

c. a component.

d. an outcome.

b. a mechanism. 

6

In the communication enhancement model by Ryan and colleagues (1995), interchanges should recognize individualized cues and

Select one:

a. empower both older adults and health care workers.

b. communication should be modified to suit individual needs and situations.

c. appropriately assess health and social issues.

d. include all of the alternatives. 

d. include all of the alternatives. 

7

Care facilities that provide a supportive environment to persons with moderate to severe dementia are known as

Select one:

a. nursing homes.

b. assisted living facilities.

c. special care units. 

d. psychiatric hospitals.

c. special care units. 

8

In the model by Lawton and Nahemow, what happens if competence levels are too high given the level of environmental press?

Select one:

a. Behaviour is extremely adaptive.

b. Behaviour becomes maladaptive. 

c. No behaviour is performed.

d. Behaviour is unpredictable.

b. Behaviour becomes maladaptive. 

9

The older individual needs to be an integral part of the decisions, especially when the outcome is likely to be

Select one:

a. a placement.

b. a nursing home. 

c. assisted living

d. all of these.

d. all of these.

10

What is the major aspect of aging in place?

Select one:

a. feeling at home 

b. feeling comfortable

c. feeling balanced

d. feeling safe

a. feeling at home 

11

The two additional variables added to form the six variable model of the social cognitive career theory were

Select one:

a. self-efficacy and outcome expectations.

b. interests and career goals. 

c. supports and barriers.

d. finances and education.

b. interests and career goals. 

12

Longitudinal studies of leisure activities show that there is

Select one:

a. variability as a result of physical changes over time.

b. stability over long periods of time. 

c. variability as a result of sensory changes over time.

d. variability as a result of financial changes over time.

b. stability over long periods of time. 

13

Women are more likely to be placed in leadership positions during times of organizational crisis — a move which makes their position precarious, and is referred to as a

Select one:

a. glass floor.

b. glass cliff. 

c. glass ceiling.

d. glass elevator.

b. glass cliff. 

14

According to the personality-type theory of career construction, Holland identified six personality types that reflect different interpersonal settings. Which of the following is not one of those personality types?

Select one:

a. Realistic

b. Artistic

c. Mental 

d. Social

c. Mental 

15

Which of the following statements about the division of household chores is true?

Select one:

a. Increased participation rates by men tends to be on weekends. 

b. Men and women spend an equal number of hours on chores.

c. Women see equity in terms of hours spent on a task.

d. European men help more with household chores than Latino men.

a. Increased participation rates by men tends to be on weekends. 

16

The value of a mentorship is heavily dependent on

Select one:

a. the type of occupation.

b. the quality of the mentor. 

c. the quality of the worker.

d. all of these alternatives.

b. the quality of the mentor. 

17

Approximately _____ of women in the European Union report having been sexually harassed in the workplace at least once.

Select one:

a. 25%

b. 45% 

c. 35%

d. 55%

b. 45% 

18

How do the occupational expectations differ between the baby boom generation and the millennial generation?

Select one:

a. There are no differences.

b. Millennials are more egotistical than boomers.

c. Millennials view traditional organizations with more distrust. 

d. Millennials are less happy and satisfied than boomers.

c. Millennials view traditional organizations with more distrust. 

19

According to the graph of labour force participation rates by women, __________ has made the greatest gains in participation rates since the 1970s.

Select one:

a. Canada 

b. Sweden

c. Italy

d. Netherlands

d. Netherlands

20

Each of the following is one of the four common meanings of work, except

Select one:

a. developing self.

b. union with others.

c. expressing self.

d. economic need. 

d. economic need. 

21

Describe adult day care and the options it provides. What are the major issues when deciding to use adult day care? What is congregate housing? What is assisted living, and what are its primary attributes? How does congregate housing differ from assisted living?

Adult day care is a place where primary care givers can send their older adult loved ones during the day so that they can be cared for in the way of social support, companionship and other services. It is not a full-time residential setup. It is a place that fosters health, boosts self-esteem of the participants and encourages socialization and leisure. 

The primary caregiver may be employed during the day or not be able to care for the older adult, so this offers them assistance with supporting their loved ones. 

The day care may provide transport to and from them facility. 

There are 3 levels: 

1) provides meals, recreation and social interaction

2) same as above but with some medical care

3) same as above but with more intense medical care and possibly the ability to care for dementia

The main major issue is that going to and from the facility will be disruptive to the individual and thus cause more stress, though studies have shown that overall there are more positive outcomes than negative. For instance the use of psychotropic medication has been shown to decline when participating in adult daycare. 

Congregate housing is a full time collective living situation where services range from no medical care to some medical care for those needing basic amounts of care. Meals are usually provided as well as some activities. These facilities require that the person be in mostly stable health and are not disruptive to other residents. 

It is typically subsidized housing, so a good option for older adults needing some support and social engagement.  

Assisted living facilities are also full-time housing situations that offer many more support services than congregate housing. Older adults who require assistance with hygiene, more intense medical assistance and care but not so much as to require 24hr care (nursing home).

Some characteristics include: 

1) dwellings look like single dwelling units with some privacy, their own bathroom

2) promote dignity, foster personal control in terms of decision making and involvement so that residents can have the best quality of life possible

3) a routine is implemented that provides services such as housekeeping, daily check ins, transportation, socialization, reminders to take medication 

4) they are not gov't regulated + they are costly 25 - 50 K a year. 

22

What are the four common meanings that describe work? What is career construction theory? Describe the two specific theories of occupational choice, and explain how they differ.

4 common meanings that describe work are: 

1) developing one's self

2) connecting with others at the work place

3) self-expression

4) being in the service of others

Career construction theory states that people base and build their careers around the way that their personal characteristics interact with social setting. In other words you have raw materials that comprise your personal characteristics, and you are placed in an environment which will activate certain qualities that might lead to a certain career. 

The 1st theory by Holland states that we choose our occupation based on our personality, our skills, intelligence abilities and interests. He speaks of 6 personality types that affect this decision and they are: investigative, social, realistic, artistic, conventional, enterprising

The second theory is based on Bandura's ideas. It is called social cognitive career theory. 

Bandura includes 4 main factors:

1) self efficacy

2) outcome expectancy

3) interests

4) choice goals

+ environmental supports and barriers 

Whereas Holland's theory is based more around personal traits, Bandura focuses more on attitudes like self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Self-efficacy is the degree to which one feels like they can complete a task with success. I am a guitar player by profession - I have been doing this for 25 years, so I have high self-efficacy in my playing. However I have low outcome expectancy in terms of finances because it has proven to be difficult to earn a lot of money in the arts. So this is affecting my current career restructuring plan. I have what Holland calls an artistic personality, though environmental factors noted in Bandura's theory are causing my more "realistic" personality traits to come forth. So one can say that both theories offer different dimensions of the same thought process around choosing a career.    

23

The PCP model of person-environment interactions by Kahana emphasizes the core concept of

Select one:

a. competence.

b. environmental stress.

c. personal factors.

d. proactive adaptations. 

d. proactive adaptations. 

24

The major reason for placement in a nursing home is

Select one:

a. the lack of other caregivers.

b. financial.

c. health. 

d. personal choice.

c. health. 

25

Many nursing homes still rely on a _____ approach of rules, routines, and requirements.

Select one:

a. skilled

b. congruence

c. traditional 

d. changed

c. traditional 

26

The basic assumption of person-environment interactions is that

Select one:

a. the person is a function of behaviour and the environment.

b. behaviour is a function of the person and the environment. 

c. environment is a function of the person and behaviour.

d. the person, behaviour, and environment are unrelated.

b. behaviour is a function of the person and the environment. 

27

The older individual needs to be an integral part of the decisions, especially when the outcome is likely to be

Select one:

a. a placement.

b. a nursing home.

c. assisted living

d. all of these. 

d. all of these. 

28

The Pioneer Network focuses on

Select one:

a. changing the culture of aging in America, regardless of where older adults live.

b. creating a habitat rather than facilities for the aging.

c. providing variety in daily activities and spontaneity.

d. all of these. 

a. changing the culture of aging in America, regardless of where older adults live.

29

Based on the work of Groger, which of the following might actually facilitate adjustment to relocation?

Select one:

a. being homesick

b. reminiscing about home 

c. forgetting about previous life and friends

d. quickly deciding to relocate before there is too much time to think about it

 

b. reminiscing about home 

30

Schooler (1982) showed that _____ affected the likelihood that a particular situation would be defined as threatening.

Select one:

a. stressors

b. coping mechanisms

c. lack of mobility 

d. social support

d. social support