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Flashcards in Quiz 7 Deck (70)
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1

The way we express our grief, known as _______, is highly influenced by culture.

Select one:

a. grief work

b. mourning 

c. bereavement

d. working through

Feedback

b. mourning 

2

The study of issues such as euthanasia is called

Select one:

a. psychoethics.

b. socioethics.

c. bioethics. 

d. medethics.

c. bioethics. 

3

According to Koestenbaum (1976), one way to increase death awareness is to

Select one:

a. write your own obituary. 

b. attend as many funerals as possible.

c. wear black.

d. attend religious services during Easter.

a. write your own obituary. 

4

Which of the following statements regarding risk factors in grief is false?

Select one:

a. Survivors with a secure attachment style to the deceased usually experience greater grief.

b. Survivors with a secure attachment style to the deceased usually experience less depression.

c. Women have higher mortality rates than men following spousal bereavement. 

d. Women have higher rates of depression than men following spousal bereavement.

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The correct answer is: Women have higher mortality rates than men following spousal bereavement.

c. Women have higher mortality rates than men following spousal bereavement. 

5

Sorrow, hurt, anger, guilt, confusion, and other feelings that arise after suffering a loss are reflected in

Select one:

a. mourning.

b. acceptance.

c. grief. 

d. distancing.

c. grief. 

6

The deliberate ending of a life because of a terminal illness is called

Select one:

a. active euthanasia. 

b. passive euthanasia.

c. homicidal euthanasia.

d. medical euthanasia.

a. active euthanasia. 

7

Susan is dying from lung cancer. She and her family are deciding on her care options and where she will be buried on her death. Making her wishes known is an example of a

Select one:

a. final scenario. 

b. death anxiety.

c. end-of-life issue.

d. dying process.

Feedback

a. final scenario. 

8

Anniversary reactions tend to be

Select one:

a. a sign of abnormal grief.

b. found only in individuals with post-traumatic stress syndrome.

c. common in normal grief. 

d. unrelated to the grief process.

c. common in normal grief. 

9

Which of the following statements is true?

Select one:

a. Death anxiety has no benefit for society.

b. Death anxiety is often reflected in our behaviour. 

c. Death anxiety appears to be unidimensional.

d. There is little behavioural evidence for death anxiety.

b. Death anxiety is often reflected in our behaviour. 

10

Which of the following statements is false?

Select one:

a. The death of a parent forces us to face our own mortality.

b. Loss of a child through stillbirth can be highly traumatic.

c. Losing parents in adulthood is considered to be a rite of passage.

d. Young adult widows have less intense grief immediately after the death. 

d. Young adult widows have less intense grief immediately after the death. 

11

______ is (are) one of the most important things for preventing or delaying the onset of several chronic conditions.

Select one:

a. A good outlook on life

b. Immunizations

c. Good relationships with family

d. Regular moderate exercise 

Regular moderate exercise 

12

Jose has been in the hospital for several weeks due to heart problems. Everyday a nurse helps Jose sit up in bed and move around to prevent fluid buildup and blood clotting. This could be seen as a

Select one:

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention. 

d. quaternary prevention.

c. tertiary prevention. 

13

In 1959, roughly _____ percent of older adults in the United States were below the federal poverty line.

Select one:

a. 35 

b. 40

c. 44

d. 45

a. 35 

14

Based on the life-span perspective, successful aging involves all of the following, except

Select one:

a. optimization.

b. selection.

c. mediators. 

d. compensation.

c. mediators. 

15

In the selection, optimization, and compensation model, changing how you exercise to reduce your risk of injury would be considered

Select one:

a. a passive strategy.

b. optimization.

c. adaptive. 

d. all of these.

c. adaptive. 

16

A problem with most theories of successful aging is that _____ is a necessary component. This might send a negative stereotype for those that do not meet this criterion.

Select one:

a. having money

b. good health 

c. having a large family

d. all of these

b. good health 

17

A subjective assessment or value judgment of your own life is known as

Select one:

a. quality of social support.

b. a successful life.

c. successful aging.

d. quality of life. 

d. quality of life. 

18

A cancer screening test is an example of

Select one:

a. primary prevention.

b. secondary prevention. 

c. tertiary prevention.

d. quaternary prevention.

b. secondary prevention. 

19

One of the keys to aging well is to increase your ________ and decrease your _________.

Select one:

a. low density lipoproteins; high density lipoproteins

b. high density lipoproteins; low density lipoproteins 

c. metabolism; body mass index

d. body mass index; metabolism

b. high density lipoproteins; low density lipoproteins 

20

According to Rowe and Kahn, the following views were foundational to the concept of successful aging, except

Select one:

a. avoidance of disease.

b. maintenance of function.

c. sustained engagement.

d. objective social support. 

d. objective social support. 

21

What are the components of death anxiety? What are the personality and demographic factors related to death anxiety? What kind of strategies exist for dealing with death anxiety?

Death anxiety is a multi dimensional construct that relates to an excess feeling of anxiety around the idea of death. It is difficult to describe and label for certain, but it manifests in behavior. 

Terror management theory relates as a possible way that people deal with this anxiety. This includes behaviors and philosophies of life that negate or block out the idea of death. Going sky diving is an example where someone, likely younger, will cling to a feeling of invincibility. Other modes of managing terror may include involvement in  the arts/culture, have many offspring. According to the theory, these are ways of dealing with death anxiety which may actually be positive outcomes from this anxiety. 

Some suggest that exposure and relations with older adults will bring upon death anxiety as it reminds younger adults of their own death. 

Older adults have  lower death anxiety than younger adults, perhaps because they are more used to thinking about it and witnessing death more regularly. Men have more anxiety than women, though women are more anxious about the dying process. 

Some symptoms can include: 

  • Physiological pain or discomfort
  • Physical malfunction
  • disproportionate psychological fear and anxieties which interfere with daily living

People deal with the anxiety by making the most of what they have available to them in terms of quality of life and perceived years ahead of them. 

Koetenbaum proposes writing one's own obituary as well as other mental exercises to acclimatize to the idea of one's own death. 

Death education programs exist to bring about awareness of the process of dying and all that goes with it in terms of physical and psychological realms. These programs are framed from philosophical, ethical, psychological, artistic,  religious, and medical perspectives in an effort to help people deal with the complex emotions surrounding death. 

 

22

Describe the scenario provided by the book authors for the year 2030. What is the dependency ratio? What are the two major issues facing the US? Are these issues different from the ones in your country?

The biggest issue by 2030 will be the disproportionate number of older to younger adults. 

The last of the baby boomers will have reached old age by then. This means that the biggest population ever to reach old age will have come to be. The proportion of older adults will have doubled by then.

These older adults are more educated and literate in all manners than previous generations. They are used to a high standard of living and will expect to keep this standard. As such they will be looking to certain things like social security and medicare to help sustain them through their later years. 

The dependency ratio is the ratio of dependent people on non-dependent people. In this context dependent means people who are under 15 and over 64. Non dependent people refers to people who are 15 - 64. By 2030 the ratio will be 1 dependent people for every 2 nondependent people, down from 1 dependent to 3 nondependent, thus putting an increased financial strain on nondependent people to support the dependents. This strain will manifest in higher taxes to pay for social security and medicare, the two big pillars of support for older adults in the US. 

Other issues to consider are that because of the spike in divorce rates in the last 40 years, there will be fewer younger adults caring for people such as their ex-mother-in-laws, for example. thus putting more strain on the health care system. In addition, the increase in ethnic minorities who are aging will force the health system to consider how discrimination and equal access to health care are factoring into the larger picture. This could be a great thing. 

Canada is different in that we have socialized medicine and are constantly in a state of evaluating and recalibrating how funding is allocated to that pool of finances. We may be better equipped to deal with this shift. Also, old age payments come from two sources,  Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security, so it's more spread out.

Canada's dependency ratio for 2030 will be a little less harsh than the shift in the US proportions, but there will still be more strain on the younger generation to financially support older adults' pension and security funds. 

 

23

The early criteria used to define death are now known as

Select one:

a. natural causes.

b. death.

c. clinical death. 

d. textbook death.

c. clinical death. 

24

Contextual theories of dying emphasize

Select one:

a. the individual differences in caregivers.

b. fate, causing a person to move from one stage to another.

c. that there is no one right way to die. 

d. the stages of dying.

c. that there is no one right way to die. 

25

Sorrow, hurt, anger, guilt, confusion, and other feelings that arise after suffering a loss are reflected in

Select one:

a. mourning.

b. acceptance.

c. grief. 

d. distancing.

c. grief. 

26

Which of the following statements about the stages of dying is true?

Select one:

a. People go through the stages in a specific order.

b. People only experience one stage at a time.

c. People vary considerably in their experience of the stages. 

d. People should be guided through the stages to facilitate grieving.

c. People vary considerably in their experience of the stages. 

27

Which of the following statements is false?

Select one:

a. The death of a parent forces us to face our own mortality.

b. Loss of a child through stillbirth can be highly traumatic.

c. Losing parents in adulthood is considered to be a rite of passage.

d. Young adult widows have less intense grief immediately after the death. 

d. Young adult widows have less intense grief immediately after the death. 

28

A lack of heartbeat and respiration are the only criteria for

Select one:

a. cortical death.

b. brain death.

c. clinical death. 

d. biological death.

c. clinical death. 

29

In general, older adults are

Select one:

a. more anxious about death because they feel impending doom.

b. more likely to have depression because of the many losses they have suffered.

c. more likely to have feelings of guilt because of the many losses they have suffered.

d. less anxious about death because they are more likely to have ego integrity. 

d. less anxious about death because they are more likely to have ego integrity.

30

Anniversary reactions tend to be

Select one:

a. a sign of abnormal grief.

b. found only in individuals with post-traumatic stress syndrome.

c. common in normal grief. 

d. unrelated to the grief process.

c. common in normal grief.