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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (20)
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1

 Dependency ratio reflects the

  • reflects the number of people under age 15 and over age 64 - so the number of people that will provide for the older ones - with regard to funding social security and medicare
  • In order to keep these programs, the youth will have to pay significantly higher taxes than we do now
  • 2:1 by 2030 (used to be 3 workers to 1 older adult) 

2

Major things have changed since the SS law's inception

  • 1)
  • In 1940, 54% of men and 61% of women reached 65
  • Today it's 75% and 85%
  • Men collect 3 years longer and women 5 years longer
  • 2)
  • Revisions to the law made it so that it's now the primary source of income for older adults and for some, the only source of income
  • Some companies and people have made 401 Ks etc so that might mean that people will rely less on SS, but there are other cases where they rely on it more
  • Biggest issue is that there is a much smaller generation that follows the baby boomers and it is funded by payroll taxes so by the time 2030 the ration will drop in half: twice as many people will be collecting SS per worker paying into it

3

Medicare qualifiers

  • Over 65
  • Disabled
  • Permanent kidney failure

4

quality of life

  • People's state of health influences their quality of life, that is, their well-being and life-satisfaction; includes
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Social support
  • Physical and mental health
  • Environmental comfort
  • Locus of control
  • Emotions
  • Usefulness
  • Personality and meaning of life
  • Usually divided into
  • 1) Environmental, physical, social
  • 2) psychological

5

Social facilitation of the nonuse competence is 

  • older people unintentionally failing to perform to their true ability because of social stereotypes that operate to limit what older adults are expected to do - so they behave in ways they believe are typical or characteristic of their age group

6

Health promotion and disease prevention X 4

  • Key strategies are:
  • God health habits
  • Good habits of thought (positive and interested in things)
  • Social network
  • Sound economic habits

7

Primary prevention is 

  • any intervention that prevents a disease or condition from occurring
  • Immunization - polio
  • Controlling cholesterol levels

8

secondary prevention is 

  • instituted early after the condition has begun and before significant impairments have occurred
  • Cancer
  • CVD
  • Routine tests for other conditions
  • Occurs between pathology and impairment

9

tertiary prevention involves

  • efforts to avoid the development of complications or secondary chronic conditions, mange the pain associated with primary chronic condition, sustain life though medical intervention   
  • For e.g. Being bedridden from a disease may lead to pneumonia
  • Sit the person up etc...
  • Minimize the functional limitations and disability
  • Avoiding additional medical problems and sustaining life

10

quaternary prevention 

  • specially aimed at improving the functional  capacities of people with chronic conditions   
  • Avoid unnecessary medical intervention
  • Especially invasive ones
  • Cognitive interventions to help Alzheimer's people with memory

11

Exercise aerobic 

  • places moderate stress on the heart by maintaing a pulse rate between 60 - 90% of the person's maximum heart rate 
  • 220 minus my age of 43 equals 158 is my 90% target heart rate

12

metabolism

  • Nutrition
  • Associated with metabolism: how much energy the body needs

13

Low density lipoproteins cause 

  • fatty deposits to accumulate in arteries impeding blood flow

14

High density lipoproteins

  • help keep arteries clear and break down the LDLs

15

Statins are

  • drugs that regulate cholesterol but have liver side effects so important to monitor

16

Body Mass index (BMI)

  • a ratio of body wight and height related to total body fat
  • The higher the BMI the greater the risk

17

What is successful aging Rowe Kahn 

  • (focusses on details of old age):
  • 1) avoidance of disease
  • 2) maintenance of physical and cognitive functions
  • 3) sustained engagement with life

18

What is successful aging Valiant

  • 1) no physical disability at 75
  • 2) Good subjective physical health
  • 3) Length of undisabled life
  • 4) good mental health
  • 5) objective social support
  • 6) self rated satisfaction in 8 domains
  • Marriage
  • Income producing work
  • Children
  • Friendship and social contacts
  • Hobbies
  • Community service activities
  • Religion
  • Recreation/sports

19

Baltes (SOC model) of succesful aging

  • (focusses on being adaptive, so less on the "disease-free model of the previous 2):
  • Selection
  • Developing and choosing goals
  • Optimization
  • Application or refinement of goal relevant means or action
  • Compensation
  • Substitution of means when the previous ones are no longer available
  • Finding substitute ways of doing things is adaptive 

20

Critique of the successful aging framework

  • Lacks a consensus making it difficult to specify the criteria for achieving it
  • Critical of assumptions from the Rowe Kahn model is that it assumes that people
  • 1) Have the resources to live a healthy life
  • 2) have access to health care
  • 3) live in a safe environment
  • 4) have life experiences that support individual decision making
  • It also implies that people who have a disease have not aged successfully