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1

A small-capacity store that deals with the items currently in use is

Select one:

a. sensory memory.

b. working memory. 

c. secondary memory.

d. remote memory.

 

working memory

2

The ability to remember where an event was actually experienced or imagined is known as

Select one:

a. imaginary memory.

b. false memory.

c. source memory. 

d. explicit memory.

source memory.

3

What part of the information processing system has an unlimited capacity, takes in information very rapidly, and by focusing your attention, information is retained?

Select one:

a. attention

b. sensory memory 

c. working memory

d. tertiary memory

b. sensory memory 

4

The best conclusion about age differences in retrieval is that

Select one:

a. older adults are less efficient when generating retrieval cues than younger adults. 

b. age differences are always eliminated in recognition tasks.

c. age differences in retrieval are very small.

d. older adults are more efficient when generating retrieval cues than younger adults.

 

older adults are less efficient when generating retrieval cues than younger adults.

5

The ability to monitor memory during performance

Select one:

a. declines significantly with age.

b. changes little with age. 

c. improves with age.

d. cannot be answered without further research.

changes little with age.

6

John has driven the same short route to work every day for the last 7 years. Today he arrived at work and realized he really did not remember any of his drive. This is an example of

Select one:

a. automatic processing. 

b. effortful processing.

c. divided attention.

d. attentional capacity.

automatic processing.

7

According to the section on metamemory, older adults

Select one:

a. know less about the internal workings of memory.

b. believe that memory is less stable with age.

c. all the alternatives are true 

d. perceive less control over memory.

 

all the alternatives are true

8

Answering a multiple choice question on an exam, like this one, is an example of

Select one:

a. recall memory.

b. recognition memory. 

c. cued recall memory.

d. semantic memory.

recognition memory.

9

Answering a short-answer or essay question are examples of

Select one:

a. inference.

b. recall. 

c. recognition.

d. recapitulation.

 

recall.

10

The type of memory having to do with time-dependent information is

Select one:

a. sensory memory.

b. working memory.

c. episodic memory. 

d. semantic memory.

episodic memory.

11

Which approach to intelligence emphasizes scores on standardized tests?

Select one:

a. psychometric 

b. neofunctionalist

c. cognitive

d. applied

a. psychometric 

12

Which of the following is not a primary mental ability?

Select one:

a. verbal meaning

b. inductive reasoning

c. word fluency

d. fluid intelligence 

d. fluid intelligence 

13

According to the theory by Piaget, changing thoughts to make a better approximation of the world is called

Select one:

a. organization.

b. operations.

c. accommodation. 

d. assimilation.

d.assimilation. 

14

Which type of thought is characterized by the recognition that the correct answer varies from situation to situation, the solutions must be realistic, that ambiguity is the rule rather than the exception, and that emotion and subjective factors usually play a role in thinking?

Select one:

a. concrete operational thought

b. formal operational thought

c. postformal thought 

d. reflective thought

c. postformal thought 

15

In general, crystallized and fluid intelligence show

Select one:

a. opposite developmental trends. 

b. identical developmental trends.

c. no developmental trends.

d. unknown developmental trends.

a. opposite developmental trends. 

16

Project ACTIVE examined whether primary mental abilities could be trained. The findings from Project ACTIVE include all of the following, except

Select one:

a. memory training benefited all adults, including those with a mild cognitive impairment. 

b. improvement in primary mental abilities had a positive effect on sense of self control.

c. improvements in some abilities persisted for at least five years.

d. declines in fluid intelligence is reversible.

a. memory training benefited all adults, including those with a mild cognitive impairment. 

17

On the television show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, many of the big winners have been in their 40s and 50s. This likely due to their superiority in which type of intelligence?

Select one:

a. fluid

b. emotional

c. crystallized 

d. inductive reasoning

c. crystallized 

18

The secondary mental ability focused on the perception of visual patterns is

Select one:

a. short-term acquisition and retrieval.

b. crystallized intelligence.

c. visual organization. 

d. fluid intelligence.

c. visual organization. 

19

Figuring out which letter goes next in the series z, w, s, n, ..., is an example of

Select one:

a. fluid intelligence. 

b. crystallized intelligence.

c. primary intelligence.

d. tertiary intelligence.

a. fluid intelligence. 

20

In the model by Denney, which of the following terms refers to the ability a normal healthy adult would exhibit without practice or training?

Select one:

a. optimally exercised ability

b. pragmatic intelligence

c. unexercised ability 

d. interindividual variability

c. unexercised ability 

21

Define the information processing approach and its three underlying assumptions. Describe the importance of sensory memory.

The information processing approach sees the way we receive, process and remember information much in the same way a computer does. 

Information is entered at the sensory level; the working memory processes it and we decide where to focus our attention and what we need to remember; information is then coded through various means of association, sometimes through rehearsal; we store the information into memory. Later on, it is retrieved, sometimes with the aid of cues. 

the three underlying assumptions are:

1) People are consciously/functionally involved in processing the information. We are deciding how and what to process based on motivation, current need and context

2) We can be aware of qualitative and quantitative details regarding what and how much we process and remember

3) processing includes a series of steps to remember things:

- most importantly, if something is already somewhat familiar, we are likely to associate it to other known knowledge, making remembering easier. 

- research focuses on how age affects the quantity and quality of what we remember

- research also focuses on how age relates to our sensory memory and how we actively process information into longer term memory  

Sensory memory is an impression of an event in the real world made onto one or more of the senses. It can hold large/possibly limitless amounts of information but for a very short amount of time. Unless we pay attention to the stimuli, it will be lost. At the moment, I hear voices in the street outside my window. I can decipher words if I focus on them, but if I don't make an effort to remember, I will forget them almost instantly. I may even forget later today that I heard voices outside. Sensory memory is important as it is the very first stage in the chain of information processing and remembering. 

22

Describe the five moderators of intellectual change, and provide examples of each.

1) Cohort differences

 it is possible that people born in the 1930s for example will exhibit different developmental trends than people who were born in the 1980s. This may be due to how the educational system in the 30s and 40s imparted knowledge about learning. Perhaps it caused people to have lower self-efficacy than those born in the 1980s. 

with the 1930s cohort, the great depression may have had an effect on their health via nutrition

perhaps health care and knowledge around maintaining good health was not as advanced back then, which led to quicker declines in intellectual factors

2) information processing 

how we fast perceive information may have an effect on fluid and crystalized intelligence

working memory suffers from this decline later in life

we also lose the ability to inhibit information that is not relevant

example: if an elderly person is on a crowded street corner with lots of distractions, they may have a hard time remembering the directions I offered them to get to the bus station. This is because they are holding too much information in their working memory and the slower processing speed is impeding them from remembering the vital details that I am trying to impart. 

3) social and life-style variables 

if a job requires that you use certain cognitive skills into later life, you are less likely to lose these skills. For example, if I have been a mathematician all my life, and I continue to teach math late into my 80s, I'll likely be able to fill out my taxes at the end of the year with relative ease  

also, if you are of a higher socio-economic status, you are less likely to see a decline in intellectual abilities, perhaps this is due to the fact that you are more able to access intellectually stimulating events and environments. You may for example be able to go to the opera and theatre and take piano lessons, which would all stimulate your cognitive abilities.You may have access to continued education. These all lead to more social interaction, which is also beneficial for cognitive health. 

4) personality

self efficacy and a positive outlook improve cognitive performance whereas distress and neuroticism may lead to further decrement 

positive thinking may also lead to more productive behavior. As and example it may lead you to pursue physical exercise, cross-word puzzles, reading, engaging in stimulating conversation. 

5) health  

Disease usually affects cognitive functioning in numerous ways. 

depression also is implicated in cognitive decrement 

Exercise serves as a form of cognitive maintenance and slows any declines already underway

for example, a professional football player with a severe head injury may experience more noticeable degradation in intellectual faculties than a player who has remained injury free. 

a person with alzheimer's disease will certainly see decline in cognitive functioning 

23

Winnie is busy taking notes from the slides presented during lecture and listening to the instructor. This is an example of

Select one:

a. attentional capacity.

b. sustained attention.

c. selective attention.

d. divided attention. 

d. divided attention. 

24

The earliest step in information processing is

Select one:

a. attention.

b. working memory.

c. primary memory.

d. sensory memory. 

d. sensory memory. 

25

Older adults are more susceptible to scams and con artists because they are more susceptible to

Select one:

a. false memories.

b. source memories.

c. flashbulb memories.

d. implicit memories. 

a. false memories.

26

Kimeka is trying to keep the page numbers of her assignment in mind until she is able to write them down. She is using her

Select one:

a. sensory memory.

b. working memory. 

c. secondary memory.

d. remote memory.

b. working memory. 

27

What part of the information processing system has an unlimited capacity, takes in information very rapidly, and by focusing your attention, information is retained?

Select one:

a. attention

b. sensory memory 

c. working memory

d. tertiary memory

b. sensory memory 

28

Memory for implicit material reveals that, in general, age differences are

Select one:

a. greater for explicit memory relative to implicit memory.

b. smaller for explicit memory relative to implicit memory.

c. are similar for explicit and implicit memory. 

d. only found on perceptual tasks.

a. greater for explicit memory relative to implicit memory.

29

When you cram for an exam a couple hours before the writing it, the material is probably in

Select one:

a. sensory memory.

b. working memory. 

c. long-term memory.

d. remote memory.

c. long-term memory.

30

Older adults are likely to have difficulties with _____, which involves remembering where a piece of information was acquired.

Select one:

a. false memory

b. source memory 

c. flashbulb memory

d. implicit memory

b. source memory