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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (30)
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1

Hayflick Limit

the number of times a cell can divide

2

three biological theories of aging

1) rate of living theory: only have so much energy

2) cellular theory: number of times a cell can divide (Hayflick) 

- telemeres

- cross linking

- free radicals

3) programmed cell death: cells are programmed to self-destruct at a certain time 

3

Telomeres

play a role in aging by adjusting the cell's response to stress and growth stimulation based on cell divid\sions and DNA damage 

Telomerase is needed in DNA replication to fully reproduce the telomeres when cells divide 

  • With each division the telomerase gets shorter and thus cannot replicate cells
  • Cancer is caused because some telomeres are not able to regulate cell growth and reproduction
  • Chronic stresses accelerates the change in telomeres whereas moderate exercise slows the rate at which they change

4

cross-linking

  • Certain proteins in human cells interact randomly and produce molecules that are linked in such a way to make the body stiffer
  • Proteins in question are called collagen
  • Acts like reinforcing rods in concrete
  • Leather tanning involves chemicals to cross link proteins so that it gets stiffer
  • As we age the number of cross links increases
  • This theory does not account for faulty formed molecules

5

free radicals

  • Highly reactive chemicals produced randomly in normal metabolism
  • They mess up neighboring cells
  • Example: when near the heart, they cause cell damage by changing oxygen levels in cells

6

Programmed cell death theory 

cells are programmed to self-destruct at a certain point 

7

three research based approaches to the work aimed at slowing or reversing aging

  • Delay the chronic illness of old age
  • Slow the fundamental process so that life span is increased to over 110
  • Arrest or reverse aging

8

Osteoporosis

  • the loss of bone mass and increased porosity create bones that resemble laced honeycomb 
  • Causes distinct curvature in spine

9

Osteoarthritis

  • bones underneath the cartilage become damaged. A disease marked by gradual onset and progression of pain and disability with minor signs of inflammation
  • wear and tear

10

Rheumatoid arthritis

  • a more destructive disease of the joints that also develops slowly and cause other types of pain than osteoarthritis

11

arthroplasty

  • surgery to either change the cartilage or cut out inflammation or as a last resort, replace the joints is possible

12

Presbyopia

  • difficulty in seeing close objects, which requires corrective lenses (reading glasses)

13

Cataracts

  • opaque spots on the eye which limits the amount of light transmitted

14

Glaucoma

  • is fluid in the eye that may not drain properly and cause high pressure, internal damage and loss of vision

15

Macular degeneration

  • Macula (this is the centre of the retina that houses the rods and cones) degenerates

16

diabetic retinopathy

  • Blindness related to diabetes

17

presbycusis

  • Reduced sensitivity to high pitched tones is called presbycusis occurs earlier and more severely than the loss of sensitivity to low pitched tones

18

Congestive hearth failure

  • occurs when cardiac output and the ability of the heart to contract severely decline, making ht heart enlarge, pressure in the veins increase and the body swell

19

Angina pectoris

  • occurs when the oxygen supply to the heart muscles becomes insufficient, resulting in chest pain

20

Myocardial infraction

  • occurs when blood supply to the heart is severely reduced or cutoff

21

Atherosclerosis

  • age related disease caused by the build up of fat deposits on the and the calcification of the arterial walls

22

cerebrovascular disease

  • Severe atherosclerosis in vessels that supply the brain with blood then neurons die

23

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

  • when blood flow to a portion of the brain is completely cut off and a stroke results

24

aphasia

problems with speech

25

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body

26

hypertension

  • When blood pressure is beyond 140

27

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • most common and incapacitating respiratory disease in adults, a family of diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  • Third leading cause of death

28

Emphysema

  • the most serious type of COPD and is characterized by the destruction of the membranes around the air sacs in the lungs

29

Menopause

  • the point at which menstruation stops

30

perimenopause

  • The transition from regular menstruation to menopause is called