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Flashcards in Bladder and Renal Cancer Deck (121)
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1

What % of new cancer diagnoses are bladder cancer in the UK?

5% for men
2% for women

2

What is the male to female ratio of bladder cancer?

3:1

3

At what age is the peak incidence of bladder cancer?

65

4

What % of adult malignancies does renal cancer account for?

3% in men
1% in women

5

What age group do adult renal cancers occur in?

Most patients are over 50 years of age

6

What is the most common risk factor for bladder cancer worldwide?

Chronic bladder infection from parasites such as schistosomiasis

7

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer in the Western world?

Environmental exposure to inflammation from smoking, arylamines, and rubber processing

8

Where might a person become exposed to arylamines?

In the dye industry

9

What genetic changes increase the risk of bladder cancer?

-Mutations on chromosome 9, particularly the TP53 gene
-Overexpression of EGFR

10

What kind of bladder cancer is of increased risk in patients with mutations in chromosome 9?

Transitional cell cancer

11

What % of cases of bladder cancer have over-expression of EGFR?

40%

12

What does over-expression of EGFR correlate with in bladder cancer?

Poor prognosis

13

Who is adult renal cell cancer more common in?

-Men
-Those who smoke

14

What conditions can adult renal cell cancer be seen in?

-Von Hippel-Lindau disease
-Familial papillary renal carcinoma syndrome

15

What is Von Hippel-Lindau disease?

An autosomal dominant condition with mutations on chromosome 3

16

What does familial papillary renal carcinoma syndrome occur due to?

Mutation of MET oncogene on chromosome 7q31

17

What cancers can renal metastasis arise from?

-Lung or breast cancers
-Melanoma
-Lymphoma

18

What are transitional cells?

Stem cells

19

Where are transitional cells found?

Adjacent to the basement membrane of the epithelial surface that line the renal tract, from the renal papillae to the proximal urethra

20

What kind of epithelium lines the distal urethra?

Squamous epithelium

21

Where do most transitional cell tumours arise?

In the bladder

22

Why do most transitional cell tumours arise in the bladder?

As this is an area of polyclonal field change most susceptible to malignant change

23

What do many bladder cancers start out as?

Papillary tumours

24

Are papillary tumours of the bladder unifocal or multifocal?

They can be multifocal across the surface area of the bladder

25

What % of patients with bladder cancer will ave superficial papillary disease at diagnosis?

70%

26

What % of patients with bladder cancer will have an invasive tumour at diagnosis?

30%

27

What % of bladder TCC start as carcinoma in situ?

10%

28

Describe bladder carcinoma in situ

Flat, non-invasive, high-grade bladder cancer that spread over the surface of the bladder

29

How can bladder carcinoma in situ progress?

It can become invasive and penetrate the bladder muscle, then metastasise

30

What % of bladder tumours are TCC?

Up to 95%