Flashcards in Prostate Cancer Deck (46)
How common is prostate cancer, compared to other cancers?
Most common male cancer
How deadly is prostate cancer, compared to other cancers?
3rd most common cause of male cancer death
What % of men over 80 have prostate cancer?
What ethnicity has the highest prevalence of prostate cancer?
What kind of cancer is prostate cancer?
Where does prostate cancer affect?
The peripheral zone of the prostate
Is prostate cancer always symptomatic?
No, it is usually asymptomatic
What are the urinary symptoms of prostate cancer?
What are the systemic symptoms of prostate cancer?
What are the metastatic symptoms of prostate cancer?
What is found on DRE in prostate cancer?
Hard, irregular prostate on PR
Loss of midline sulcus
Where does prostate cancer spread locally?
Which lymph nodes does prostate cancer spread to?
What does prostate cancer cause if it spreads haematologically?
Sclerotic bony lesions
What bloods are done in prostate cancer?
Acid and alk phos
What imaging is done in prostate cancer?
XR chest and spine
Transrectal US and biopsy
How can the detection of affected nodes be improved in MRI staging scan for prostate cancer?
Contrast enhancing magnetic nanoparticles
What is PSA?
A proteolytic enzyme used in liquefaction of ejaculate
What can cause an increase is PSA?
What % of small cancers have a normal PSA result?
How is Gleason grade calculated?
Score the two worst affected areas
How is Gleason trade interpreted?
The sum is inversely proportional to prognosis
What is Tis in prostate cancer?
Carcinoma in situ
What is T1 in prostate cancer?
Incidental finding on TURP or increased PSA
What is T2 in prostate cancer?
Intracapsular tumour with deformation of prostate
What is T3 in prostate cancer?
What is T4 in prostate cancer?
Fixed to pelvis and invading neighbouring structures
What is N1-4 in prostate cancer?
Lymph node involvement
What is M1 in prostate cancer?