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Flashcards in Prostate Cancer Deck (46)
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1

How common is prostate cancer, compared to other cancers?

Most common male cancer

2

How deadly is prostate cancer, compared to other cancers?

3rd most common cause of male cancer death

3

What % of men over 80 have prostate cancer?

80%

4

What ethnicity has the highest prevalence of prostate cancer?

Black people

5

What kind of cancer is prostate cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

6

Where does prostate cancer affect?

The peripheral zone of the prostate

7

Is prostate cancer always symptomatic?

No, it is usually asymptomatic

8

What are the urinary symptoms of prostate cancer?

Nocturia
Frequency
Hesitancy
Poor stream
Terminal dripping
Obstruction

9

What are the systemic symptoms of prostate cancer?

Weight loss
Fatigue

10

What are the metastatic symptoms of prostate cancer?

Bone pain

11

What is found on DRE in prostate cancer?

Hard, irregular prostate on PR
Loss of midline sulcus

12

Where does prostate cancer spread locally?

Seminal vesicles
Bladder
Rectum

13

Which lymph nodes does prostate cancer spread to?

Para-aortic nodes

14

What does prostate cancer cause if it spreads haematologically?

Sclerotic bony lesions

15

What bloods are done in prostate cancer?

PSA
U&E
Acid and alk phos
Calcium

16

What imaging is done in prostate cancer?

XR chest and spine
Transrectal US and biopsy
Bone scan
Staging MRI

17

How can the detection of affected nodes be improved in MRI staging scan for prostate cancer?

Contrast enhancing magnetic nanoparticles

18

What is PSA?

A proteolytic enzyme used in liquefaction of ejaculate

19

What can cause an increase is PSA?

Prostate cancer
Age
PR
TURP
Prostatitis

20

What % of small cancers have a normal PSA result?

30%

21

How is Gleason grade calculated?

Score the two worst affected areas

22

How is Gleason trade interpreted?

The sum is inversely proportional to prognosis

23

What is Tis in prostate cancer?

Carcinoma in situ

24

What is T1 in prostate cancer?

Incidental finding on TURP or increased PSA

25

What is T2 in prostate cancer?

Intracapsular tumour with deformation of prostate

26

What is T3 in prostate cancer?

Extra-prostatic extension

27

What is T4 in prostate cancer?

Fixed to pelvis and invading neighbouring structures

28

What is N1-4 in prostate cancer?

Lymph node involvement

29

What is M1 in prostate cancer?

Distant mets

30

What is the importance of prognostic factors in prostate cancer?

Help determine whether to pursue radical Rx