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Flashcards in Breast Cancer Deck (117)
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1

What proportion of women are affected by breast cancer?

1/10

2

How many cases of breast cancer are there a year in the UK?

20,000

3

How does the mortality of breast cancer compare to other cancers?

It is the most common cause of cancer death in females 15-54, and the second most common cause of cancer deaths overall

4

What % of breast cancer cancers are familail?

10%

5

By how much does having a first degree relative with breast cancer increase the risk?

2x

6

What % of cases of breast cancers are associated with BRCA mutations?

5%

7

What are the risk factors for breast cancer?

Family history
Oestrogen exposure
Proliferative breast disease with atypia
Previous breast cancer
Older age

8

What factor is protective against breast cancer?

Breast feeding

9

What factors can increase a persons oestrogen exposure?

Early menarche, late menopause
HRT and OCP
First child >35 years
Obesity

10

What is DCIS/LCIS?

A non-invasive pre-malignant condition

11

How is DCIS/LCIS discovered?

Microcalcification on mammography

12

How much does DCIS/LCIS increase the risk of invasive breast cancer?

10x

13

What are the subtypes of breast cancer?

Invasive ductal carcinoma
Invasive lobular
Medullary
Colloid/mucinous
Inflammatory
Papillary
Phyllodes tumour

14

What is the most common subtype of breast cancer?

Invasive ductal carcinoma

15

What % of breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma?

70%

16

How does a invasive ductal carcinoma feel on palpation?

Hard (scirrhous)

17

What % of breast cancers are invasive lobular?

20%

18

Who do medullary breast cancers affect?

Younger patient

19

How do medullary breast cancers feel on palpation?

Soft

20

Who do colloid/mucinous breast cancers affect?

Elderly

21

What are the features of inflammatory breast cancers?

Pain
Erythema
Swelling
Peau d'orange

22

What is a Phyllodes tumour?

Stromal tumour

23

How does a Phyllodes tumour present?

Large, non-tender, mobile lump

24

How can breast cancer spreadd?

Direct extension
Lymph
Blood

25

Where might breast cancer spread by direct extension?

Muscle and/or skin

26

What are the signs of lymphatic involvement in breast cancer?

P'eau d'orange
Arm oedema

27

Where does breast cancer commonly spread to in the blood?

Bones
Lungs
Liver
Brain

28

How does breast cancer that has spread to bones present?

Bone pain
Increased calcium
Fractures

29

How does breast cancer that has spread to lungs present?

Dyspnoea
Pleural effusion

30

How does breast cancer that has spread to brain present?

Headache
Seizures