Flashcards in Oesophageal Cancer Deck (47)
What is the incidence of oesophageal cancer?
Why is the incidence of oesophageal cancer increasing?
Due to increase in Barrett's oesophagus
What age does oesophageal cnacer occur?
What is the male to female ratio of oesophageal cancer?
M:F = 5:1
What countries have a higher incidence of oesophageal cancer?
What are the risk factors for oesophageal cancer?
GORD leading to Barrett's oesophagus
Reduced vitamin A and C
What are the types of oesophageal cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What % of oesophageal cancers are adenocarcinomas?
What % of oesophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas?
Where do adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus occur?
What causes adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus?
GORD → Barrett's → dysplasia → cancer
Where do oesophageal SCC occur?
Upper and middle 3rd
What are oesophageal SCC associated with?
What is the most common type of oesophageal cancer worldwide?
How does oesophageal cancer present?
Retrosternal chest pain
What happens in progressive dysphagia?
Progresses from solids to liquids, often causing an alteration in dietary habits to soft food
What is the result of the change in diet as a result of the dysphagia in oesophageal cancer?
Exacerbation of weight loss
What symptoms of oesophageal cancer might occur if its in the upper 1/3?
Cough, with or without aspiration pneumonia
Why might oesophageal cancer cause hoarseness?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion
How does oesophageal cancer spread?
Direct extension, lymphatics, and blood
What % of patients with oesophageal cancer have mets at diagnosis?
How is oesophageal cancer investigated?
Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy
Barium swallow (not often used)
What might be found on bloods in oesophageal cancer?
What might cause deranged LFTs/albumin in oesophageal cancer?
What is found on barium swallow in oesophageal cancer?
What staging investigations are done in oesophageal cancer?
Laparoscopy/mediastinotomy to look for mets
What is Tis in oesophageal cancer?
Carcinoma in situ
What is T1 in oesophageal cancer?
Confined to submucosa
What is T2 in oesophageal cancer?
Invades muscularis propria (circular or longitudinal)